Publications of Fodor, É.

Fodor É, Lane L, Schippers J, van der Lippe T. Gender Differences in Quality of Life. In: Back-Wicklung M, der Lippe TV, den Dulk L, Doornie-Huskies A, editors. Quality of Life and Work in Europe: Theory, Practice, Policy. London: Palgrave; 2011. p. 149-65.

Back to the Kitchen: Gender Role Attitudes in 13 East European Countries

This paper explores the determinants of gender role opinions in 13 post-communist Eastern European societies using survey data from the project EUREQUAL. Our main findings consist of two parts. First, contrary to the expectations of scholars who emphasize the lack of gender/feminist consciousness in Eastern Europe, we argue that gender indeed is an important determinant of gender role opinions in post-communist societies: as elsewhere women express more liberal attitudes than men. Second, we argue that the interaction of other determinants of gender role opinions with gender also follows patterns described in the literature for more developed capitalist countries. In this respect, therefore, East European countries seem to fit the general trends of gender role opinion formation. As explanation we point to a connection between women’s material conditions and their gender role attitudes, not denying the importance of cultural difference – if primarily as exception – to this process.

Fodor É. Women and political engagement in East-Central Europe. In: Goetz AM, editor. Governing women : women's political effectiveness in contexts of democratization and governance reform. Vol 5. New York: Routledge; 2009. p. 112-28. (Routledge/UNRISD research in gender and development; vol 5).
Fodor É, Varsa E. At the Crossroads of "East" and "West" : Gender Studies in Hungary. In: Bose CE, Kim M, editors. Global gender research : transnational perspectives. New York: Routledge; 2009. p. 290-307. (Perspectives on gender).

Book review : The Red Riviera : Gender, Tourism, and Postcolonialism on the Black Sea

This article reviews the book "The Red Riviera : Gender, Tourism, and Postsocialism on the Black Sea" by Kristen Ghodsee.

Book review : Postsocialism : Politics and Emotions in Central and Eastern Europe

This article reviews the book "Postsocialism : Politics and Emotions in Central and Eastern Europe" edited by Maruska Svasek.

From Public to Private Maternalism? Gender and Welfare in Poland and Hungary after 1989

This paper compares the political processes and gendered outcomes of welfare state formation in Hungary and Poland. We find both differences and similarities in the extent to which family and maternity policies in the two countries encourage women's paid work, support women's care giving work in the home, guard women and their families against poverty, and differentiate among women based on ethnic/racial classifications and class status. We argue that while welfare states in Western Europe may be increasingly characterized by a retreat from maternalist policies, Hungarian and Polish welfare policies support distinct forms of maternalism. While maternalism is privatized in Poland, it is publicly supported and subsidized in Hungary. We attempt to explain the divergence between the two countries by pointing to differences in class-based and gender-based political mobilization around family benefits as well as the timing of welfare reforms. Despite differences in the substance of the policies, however, we find that both regimes limit women's labor market opportunities.

Book review : Nation and Gender in Contemporary Europe

This article reviews the book "Nation and Gender in Contemporary Europe" by Vera Tolz and Stephanie Booth.

Fodor É. Preface. In: Jacobs G, editor. The story behind the numbers : women and employment in Central and Eastern Europe and the Western Commonwealth of Independent States. Bratislava: United Nations Development Fund for Women; 2006. p. 6. (UNIFEM publication).

A Different Type of Gender Gap : How Women and Men Experience Poverty

While recent surveys do not find that poverty is feminized in post-communist Hungary, this project explores gender differences in the experience of destitution. Drawing on a content analysis of in-depth interviews in twentyseven very low-income households, the author exposes the particularly gendered daily practice of poverty in Hungarian families. The author argues that one of the major gender differences in the experience of poverty is that men often find themselves in a gender role crisis when they are too poor to function as successful breadwinners. Women, on the other hand, tend to feel their roles as caretakers intensified and thus avoid a conflict with (newly) hegemonic ideals of femininity. As a response, poor marriedcouple families devise ways in which they try to alleviate men's gender shame. The goal of the article is to identify four such strategies, which are used by poor couples to devise livable alternatives to hegemonic gender roles.

Gender mainstreaming and its consequences in the European Union

In an ironic but presumably not coincidental twist of fate, West European governments and international organizations began insisting on the institutionalization of equal opportunities just as the East Europeans began to completely abandon the notion of women’s equality. In the course of the enlargement process, the candidate countries had to demonstrate their commitment to the EU’s equal opportunity directives; equal opportunities had to be guaranteed by law, and aspiring member states had to establish government agencies that support the realization of gender equality in society and offer legal remedies to those who can prove they have been subject to discrimination. Furthermore, they also had to develop coordinated and unified data collection in all walks of life, from poverty to sports. But what does the creation of equal opportunities for the sexes really mean, and what social ills can it be expected to cure? Does it have any significance for the post-communist EU member states? And how efficiently can they achieve its social objectives by employing the strategy of gender equality? These are the issues addressed by this article.

Book review : Women's Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe

This artice reviews the book "Women's Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe" edited by Richard E. Matland and Kathleen Montgomery.

Book review : Post-Soviet Women Encountering Transition : Nation Building, Economic Survival and Civil Activism

This article reviews the book "Post-Soviet Women Encountering Transition : Nation Building, Economic Survival and Civil Activism" edited by Kathleen Kuehnast and Carol Nechemias.

Book review : Gender, Globalization, and Postsocialism : The Czech Republic after Communism

This article reviews the book "Gender, Globalization and Postsocialism : The Czech Republic After Communism" by Jacqui True.

Fodor É, for Development UN. Occasional Paper Gender Policy. Vol 3. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development; 2005.

Occasional Paper Gender Policy

This paper assesses trends in women’s labour-market positions in three Central European countries from 1989 to 2002: Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland. I also examine how these changes are related to—affect, are derived from and have consequences for—the reformulation of women’s social rights, especially those concerning women’s responsibilities in childbirth and childrearing.I argue that, in absolute terms, women’s labour market position deteriorated in the three countries in this study, but not to the extent that had been expected. In fact, women improved their positions in some areas, and their losses relative to men have—so far—been minimal.More importantly, there are significant variations across the three countries in how women fared. In Poland, a “familial welfare state” (in which families, rather than the state have been expected to take primary responsibility for dependents), combined with a long history of women’s labour-market disadvantage, assigns women primarily to the household. Women do work, of course, but unemployment is rampant, the wage gap is significant, and women seem to have difficulty gaining positions of authority in the workplace.Women are most likely to be economically active in the Czech Republic, which underwent a slower, less radical, economic transformation process, but they are found in significantly lower-level positions in the labour market: women keep working, but at a distinct disadvantage compared to men.Hungary, on the other hand, is marked by a strong bifurcation of women’s positions. This differentiation exists in the other two countries as well, but the presence of a poor ethnic minority in Hungary makes social exclusion along the lines of gender (as well as race and class) more visible and also politically significant. Hungarian women in the upper-middle class—often also young, childless and highly educated—have been quite successful in gaining or retaining their positions in the labour market and fighting for social rights that help them combine these with some household responsibilities. Poor women, however, are left behind, inactive, retired early or subsisting on welfare benefits; they are discouraged from looking for work, and would have trouble fitting into the new world order.

Fodor É. Ungarn : Vorzeige-Parlamentarierinnen und Kleinstadt-Bürgermeisterinnen : die Partizipation von Frauen in der ungarischen Politik seit 1990. In: Hoecker B, Fuchs G, editors. Handbuch politische Partizipation von Frauen in Europa : Die Beitrittsstaaten. Vol 2. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; 2004. p. 147-62.

Book review : Poverty in America : A Handbook

This article reviews the book "Poverty in America : A Handbook" by John Iceland.

A női emancipáció Magyarországon és Ausztriában, 1972–1992

Emancipation in Hungary and in Austria, 1972-1992.

Book review : Inventing the Needy : Gender and the Politics of Welfare in Hungary

This article reviews the book "Inventing the Needy : Gender and the Politics of Welfare in Hungary" by Lynne Haney.

Book review : Inventing the Needy : Gender and the Politics of Welfare in Hungary

This artice reviews the book "Inventing the Needy : Gender and the Politics of Welfare in Hungary" by Lynne Haney.

Létezik-e kritikus társadalomtudomány 1989 után? Amerikai kritika magyar társadalmi viszonyokat elemző művekről

Is critical social theory possible after 1989?

Book review : Keleten? Nyugaton? Susan Gal és Gail Kligman könyveiről

This article reviews two books written by Susan Gal and Gail Kligman.

Emigh RJ, Fodor É, Szelényi I. The Racialization and Feminization of Poverty? In: Emigh JR, Szelényi I, editors. Poverty, ethnicity, and gender in Eastern Europe during the market transition. Westport: Praeger; 2001. p. 1-32.

The Feminization of Poverty in Six Post-State Socialist Societies

Relying primarily on survey data from six East European countries, this paper seeks to answer two questions: 1) Are women over-represented among the poor population in Eastern Europe and if so, where? 2) What possible factors might explain the differences in the gender poverty gap across the countries under study? I find that three of the six countries exhibit significant gender differences in poverty: Russia, Romania and Bulgaria, and hypothesize that the speed of the economic transformations, as well as the resulting development of the welfare state will best explain the cross-country differences.

Fodor É. The Political Woman? Women in Politics in Hungary 1992. In: Rueschemeyer M, editor. Women in the politics of postcommunist Eastern Europe. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe; 1998. p. 142-67.
Fodor É. Nowe elity kulturalne i polityczne. In: Szelényi I, Treiman DJ, Wnuk-Lipiński E, editors. Elity w Polsce, w Rosji i na Węgrzech : wymiana czy reprodukcja? Warszawa: Institut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk; 1995. p. 159-85.

Nowe elity kulturalne i polityczne

The New Political and Cultural Elite