Publications of Sajó, A.

Sándor J. Bioethics and Basic Rights: Persons, Humans, and Boundaries of Life. In: Rosenfeld M, Sajó A, editors. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012. p. 1142-65.
Sándor J. Bioethics and Basic Rights: Persons, Humans, and the Boundaries of Life. In: Sajó A, Rosenfeld M, editors. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012. p. 1142-65.
Constitutional Topography: Values and Constitutions. Sajó A, Uitz R, editors. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing; 2010.
Issues in constitutional law. Sajó A, editor. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing; 2009.
Sajó A. Vallási tolerancia és felekezeti egyenjogúság a nemzetközi jogban. In: Köbel S, editor. Egyházak és tolerancia Magyarországon : tudományos konferencia az 1947. évi XXXIII. törvény megszületésének 60. évfordulója alkalmából : 2007. december 5. Budapest: OKM Egyházi Kapcsolatok Titkársága; 2008. p. 175-82.
Issues in constitutional law. Vol 4. Sajó A, editor. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing; 2007.
Sajó A. Countervailing Duties as Applied to Danish Cheese and Danish Cartoons. In: Censorial sensitivities : free speech and religion in a fundamentalist world. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing; 2007. p. 273-308.
Sajó A. The development of Freedom of Expression after 1989. In: Lamm V, editor. Transformation in Hungarian law, 1989-2006 : selected studies. Budapest: Akad. K.; 2007. p. 63-81.
Uitz R. Constitutional democracy trapped between freedom of expression and freedom of religion : a preface. In: Sajó A, editor. Censorial sensitivities : free speech and religion in a fundamentalist world. Vol 4. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing; 2007. p. 1-20. (Issues in constitutional law; vol 4).

Global Governance and Local Constitutionalism

The concept of modern constitutionalism is intimately related to notions of state sovereignty. The actual influence of the constitution as a hierarchical tool of nation-state design remains a matter of dubious empirical validity. State centered constitutionalism is confronting governance by networks: both private domestic networks and networks of national governmental institutions are becoming decision-makers, which cannot be controlled within the concepts of state based constitutionalism. Notwithstanding these developments the above difficulties of constitutional social steering and determination of the public sphere have not resulted in the dethroning of the paradigm of state centered constitutional law in the constitutional law community. In this paper I consider two structures of polycentric exercise of public power that are decisive for a new paradigm of constitutionalism. The first type of transnational network structure is primarily a network of private ordering with the participation of administrative bodies of the desaggregating state and private entities associated with the administrative entities (transboundary private networks). A second kind of transnational networks (transgovernmental networks) originates from supranational organizations that operate beyond the nation state. Transgovernmental networks take away traditional governmental functions and overwrite/replace the decisions of the state organs. The taking of state functions includes regulation, adjudication, enforcement, material and other services. The actions of the networks are beyond the control of the constitutionally designated authorities and follow principles, which are unrelated to the otherwise pertinent constitutional principles. The article considers the impact of international networks on the desaggregation of the constitutional state and the possibility of a new legitimation for transnational network-based governance. ..PAT.-Unpublished Manuscript [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

The legislative framework and judicial review concerning racist and discriminatory expression in a selected number of European countries. (Background paper)

Background paper for a conference. Council of Europe, 16-17 November 2006

Sajó A. Hadiállapot, renkívüli állapot, szükségállapot – látomás. In: L. T, editor. A mi alkotmányunk : vélemények és elemzések Magyarország Alkotmányáról. Budapest: Complex Kiadó; 2006. p. 15-162.
Sajó A. Preface. In: Abuse : the dark side of fundamental rights. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing; 2006. p. 1-4.
Sajó A. Abuse of Fundamental Rights or the Difficulties of Purposiveness. In: Abuse : the dark side of fundamental rights. Eleven International Publishing: Utrecht; 2006. p. 29-98.
Sajó A. Alkotmányosság a magánjogban : Előszó. In: Alkotmányosság a magánjogban. Budapest: CompLex; 2006. p. 7-13.
Sajó A. The Republic of Hungary. In: Kortmann C, Fleuren J, Voermans W, editors. Constitutional law of 10 EU member states : the 2004 enlargement. Deventer: Kluwer BV; 2006. IV-3-IV-55.
Sajó A. Remarks on Constitution Making and Amending. In: Constitutional Reengineering in New Democracies -Taiwan and the World. Taipei: National Taiwan University; 2006. p. 113-31.
Sajó A. Social Rights as Middle-Class Entitlements in Hungary : The Role of the Constitutional Court. In: Gargarella R, Domingo P, Roux T, editors. Courts and social transformation in new democracies : an institutional voice for the poor? Hampshire: Ashgate; 2006. p. 83-106.
Sajó A. Mit keresnek az érzelmek a jogban? A szobatudós szempontjai. In: Pázmándi K, editor. Sárközy Tamás : ünnepi kötet. Budapest: Hvg-Orac; 2006. p. 188-204.
Uitz R, Sajó A. Constitutional values in Hungarian constitutional jurisprudence. In: Common legal space of Europe and practice of constitutional justice. Moscow: Institute of Law and Public Policy; 2006.

Constitutional values in Hungarian constitutional jurisprudence

International Forum on Constitutional Justice ; 9, 2006, Moscow

Uitz R, Sajó A. A case for enforceable constitutional rights? : Welfare rights in Hungarian constitutional jurisprudence. In: Coomans F, editor. Justiciability of economic and social rights : experiences from domestic systems. Antwerpen: Intersentia; 2006. p. 97-128.

Transnational Networks and Constitutionalism

The concept of modern constitutionalism is intimately related to notions of state sovereignty. The actual influence of the constitution as a hierarchical tool of nation-state design remains a matter of dubious empirical validity. Today, among the conditions of intergovernmentalism and globalization, state centered constitutionalism is confronting governance by networks: both private domestic networks and networks of national governmental institutions are becoming decision-makers, which cannot be controlled within the concepts of state based constitutionalism. Notwithstanding these developments the above difficulties of constitutional social steering and determination of the public sphere have not resulted in the dethroning of the paradigm of state centered constitutional law in the constitutional law community. Such disregard runs the risk to turn constitutionalism into irrelevant speculation in an age of globalization. In the globalized world the most important decisions and events affecting society escape the control of the sovereign state operating on the principle of territoriality. In this paper I consider two structures of polycentric exercise of public power that are decisive for a new paradigm of constitutionalism. The first type of transnational network structure is primarily a network of private ordering with the participation of administrative bodies of the desaggregat­ing state and private entities associated with the administrative entities (transboundary private networks). A second kind of transnational networks (transgovernmental networks) originates from supranational organizations that operate beyond the nation state. Transgovernmental networks take away traditional governmental functions and overwrite/replace the decisions of the state organs. The taking of state functions includes regulation, adjudication, enforcement, material and other services. The actions of the networks are beyond the control of the constitu­tionally designated authorities and follow principles, which are unrelated to the otherwise pertinent constitutional principles. The article considers the impact of international networks on the desaggregation of the constitutional state and the possibility of a new legitimation for transnational network-based governance.

Sajó A. Ambiguities and boundaries in human rights knowledge systems. In: Eisgruber CL, editor. Global justice and the bulwarks of localism : human rights in context. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 2005. p. 17-41.
Sajó A. EU Networks under the New Constitution : Impact on Domestic Constitutional Structures. In: Pernice I, editor. A constitution for Europe : the IGC, the ratification process and beyond. Baden-Baden: Nomos; 2005. p. 183-98.
Sajó A. Internet-demokrácia? In: Majtényi L, editor. Az elektronikus információszabadság. Budapest: Eötvös K. Int.; 2005. p. 335-54.
Sajó A. Semleges intézmények és a kormányzati bizalommal kapcsolatos tapasztalatok Kelet-Európában. In: Kornai J, Susan R, editors. Tisztesség és bizalom a posztszocialista átmenet fényében. Budapest: Nemz. Tankvk.; 2005. p. 27-47.
Sajó A, Eisgruber CL, Rose A. Introduction. In: Sajó A, editor. Global justice and the bulwarks of localism : human rights in context. Leiden: M. Nijhoff; 2005. ix-xv.
Uitz R. Yet another revival of horizontal effect of constitutional rights : why and why now? An introduction. In: Sajó A, Uitz R, editors. The constitution in private relations : expanding constitutionalism. Vol 2. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing; 2005. p. 1-20. (Issues in constitutional law; vol 2).
Sajó A. Social rights : A wide agenda. Eur. Const. Law Rev.European Constitutional Law Review. 2005;1(1):38-43.
Sajó A. Constitution without the constitutional moment : A view from the new member states. ICON-Int. J. Const. LawIcon-International Journal Of Constitutional Law. 2005;3(2-3):243-61.
Sajó A. Book review. International Journal of Constitutional Law. 2005;3(4):697-705.

Book review

This article reviews the books "TransnationalGovernance and Constitutionalism : International Studies in the Theory of PrivateLaw" by Christian Joerges, Inger-Johanne Sand, and Gunther Teubner and "A New World Order" by Anne-Marie Slaughter

Militant democracy. Sajó A, editor. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing; 2004.
Pető A. A női esélyegyenlőségre vonatkozó női felfogás hatása a magyar választójogi gondolkodásra 1848-1990. Az „állam érdekében adományozott jog” feminista megközelítésben. In: Sajó A, editor. Befogadás és eredetiség a jogban és a jogtudományban : adalékok a magyarországi jog természetrajzához. Budapest: Áron Kiadó; 2004. p. 136-75.
Sajó A. A demokrácia és a bürokrácia hálózatai. In: Majtényi ML, editor. És mi lesz az alkotmánnyal? Budapest: Eötvös K. Int.; 2004. p. 156-8.
Sajó A. Bevezető feltevések a magyar jogi és jogtudományi recepció és kreativitás természetéről. In: Sajó A, editor. Befogadás és eredetiség a jogban és a jogtudományban : adalékok a magyarországi jog természetrajzához. Budapest: Áron Kiadó; 2004. p. 7-13.
Sajó A. A tudásrendszer problémája az emberi jogokban. In: Sajó A, editor. Befogadás és eredetiség a jogban és a jogtudományban : adalékok a magyarországi jog természetrajzához. Budapest: Áron; 2004. p. 175-215.
Sajó A. Universalism with Humility – an Introduction. In: Human rights with modesty : the problem of universalism. Leiden; Boston: M. Nijhoff Publishers; 2004. p. 1-32.
Sajó A. Accession’s Impact on Constitutionalism in the New Member States. In: Bermann G, Pistor K, editors. Law and governance in an enlarged European Union. Hart: Oxford; 2004. p. 415-35.
Sajó A. Militant democracy and transition towards democracy. In: Militant democracy. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, Utrecht; 2004.
Sajó A. Ésszerűség és büntetés. In: Hitseker M, editor. Mindentudás Egyeteme. Budapest: Kossuth; 2004. p. 143-54.
Sajó A. Neutral institutions: implications for government trustworthiness in East European democracies. In: Kornai J, editor. Building a trustworthy state in post-socialist transition. New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan; 2004. p. 29-51.
Sajó A. Rasszista nézetek büntetésének alkotmányosságáról. In: B. G, editor. Györgyi Kálmán ünnepi kötet. Budapest: KJK-Kerszöv; 2004. p. 479-509.

The Impacts of EU Accession on Post-communist Constitutionalism

One of the persistent fears regarding the accession countries envisions that these countries will not catch up with the prevailing practices of constitutionalism and the rule of law that allegedly constitute the common tradition of Europe. It is believed, and in many regards rightly so, that accession to the Union will push Eastern Europe towards the values and institutional settings of modernity. Given the process and political consequences of the accession, as well as for other, historical and cultural reasons, the short term modernization effects of the membership might be limited, even counterproductive. This paper discusses the impact of the current "Europeanization" on the public understanding and institutional structures of constitutional democracy in the new member states. Further, it evaluates the foreseeable impacts of the emerging European Constitution on the constitutional structures (the new checks and balances) in the new member states, except the human rights aspects of constitutionalism.

Sajó A. Szamozascsita Konsztitucionnovo Goszudarsztva. Konstitutsionnoe pravo : vostochnoevropeiskoe obozrenie. 2004:2-10.
Sajó A. Constitutional Enthusiasm Towards Network Constitutionalism?. New York: Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law and Justice; 2004.
Sajó A. Welfare Rights in the Post-Communist Constitutional Experience. In: Constitutionalism in transition : africa and eastern europe. Warsaw: Helsinki Fndn For Human; 2003. p. 41-73.
Sajó A. The Concepts of Neutrality and the State. In: From liberal values to democratic transition : essays in honor of János Kis. Budapest: CEU Press; 2003. p. 107-44.
Sajó A. A szólásszabadság alkotmányos problémái a magyar jogrendben. In: Liber amicorum : studia A. Harmathy dedicata : ünnepi dolgozatok Harmathy Attila tiszteletére. Budapest: ELTE ÁJK Polgári Jogi Tansz.; 2003. p. 255-87.
Sajó A. Erosion and Decline of the Rule of Law in Post-Communism : An Introduction. In: Out of and into authoritarian law. The Hague: Kluwer Law International; 2003. ix-xxiii.

Pluralism in Post-Communist Law

This paper discusses problems related to the incorporation of constitutional rule of law into a pluralistic legal system, primarily in post-communist Hungary. Normative pluralism was characteristic of state socialism. Is this pluralism going to shape the emerging constitution-driven law of post-communism? The paper concludes that although constitutional universalism brought a new dimension to law and in principle has helped to promote the centrality of law in the competitive world of normative orderings, it may in the long run remain an elitist tool, fundamentally ignored or circumvented by sub-legal forms of social interaction.

Book review

This article reviews the book "Policing world society. Historical foundations of international police cooperation" by Mathieu Deflem

Book review

This article reviews the book "Konstitutsionnye proekty v Rossii" by Bertolissi, S.; Sakharov, A. N.