Publications of Andrea Krizsan

The Gender Politics of Domestic Violence. Feminists Engaging the State in Central and Eastern Europe

What are the factors that shape domestic violence policy change and how are variable gendered meanings produced in these policies? How and when can feminists influence policy making? What conditions and policy mechanisms lead to progressive change and which ones block it or lead to reversal? The Gender Politics of Domestic Violence analyzes the emergence of gender equality sensitive domestic violence policy reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Tracing policy developments in Eastern Europe from the beginning of 2000s, when domestic violence first emerged on policy agendas, until 2015, Andrea Krizsán and Conny Roggeband look into the contestation that takes place between women’s movements, states and actors opposing gender equality to explain the differences in gender equality sensitive policy outputs across the region. They point to regionally specific patterns of feminist engagement with the state in which coalition-building between women’s organizations and establishing alliances with different state actors were critical for achieving gendered policy progress. In addition, they demonstrate how discursive contexts shaped by democratization frames and opposition to gender equality, led to differences in the politicization of gender equality, making gender friendly reforms more feasible in some countries than others.

Krizsan A. Translating Domestic violence norms in five countries of East Central Europe. In: Batory A, Cartwright A, Stone D, editors. Policy Experiments, Failures and Innovations Beyond Accession in Central and Eastern Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018. p. 66-87. (New Horizons in Public Policy).

Translating Domestic violence norms in five countries of East Central Europe

This chapter looks at norms translation processes in the field of domestic violence. Using data from five countries of East Central Europe (ECE): Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Poland and Romania, proposes a multi-pronged cross-directional international influence model that challenges traditional top down understandings of international influence. I argue that international influence is not direct, linear and top-down but constructed and negotiated in processes of interaction between international actors and domestic agents, where translation processes influence the direction of policy change. International influence provides content to reforms through defining, communicating and monitoring norms, and through facilitating the production of evidence for domestic violence as a policy problem. In order to understand the nature of international influence, we have to look beyond norms transfer at two additional mechanisms through which it impacts domestic policy processes. First, international influence can create ‘political opportunities’ to enable domestic mobilization for policy change. Second, domestic agents are key in translation of international norms. Enabling such agency becomes critical in processes of norms translation. The chapter shows how international influence understood along these lines contributes to variation in policy progress achieved in different contexts.

Contesting Gender Equality in Domestic-Violence Policy Debates: Comparing Three Countries in Central and Eastern Europe

This chapter looks at opposition to gender equality as a component of political opportunity structures, a factor that conditions women’s movement mobilization either by limiting the opportunities available to it or by serving as its catalyst. In order to understand how opposition can become an aspect of political opportunities we analyze opposition to women’s movement mobilizatin for domestic violence policy progress in four countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The analysis adopts a wide understanding of opposition to gender equality, to include not just explicitly articulated challenges to gender equality claims but also challenges that at face value do not address gender equality, but still indirectly threaten a gender equality understanding of domestic violence policy. In order to understand contestation to gender equality in this field the chapter looks at frames opposing a gendered understanding of domestic violence, and actors behind them, state as well as non-state opponents. To understand dynamics between opposition and movement strategies it looks at coping and reaction mechanisms used by movement actors in the presence of opposition. The chapter argues first that opposition influences the meanings articulated by movement actors in their claims. Discursive structures that are oppositional or oppositional framing used by strong actors set boundaries to meanings that can be articulated in feminist mobilization for change. Secondly, it shows that opposition also influences strategies of mobilization including coalition formation, institutional alliances, as well as the mechanisms of influence. Overall this chapter demonstrates the importance of looking at opposition over time rather than as a snapshot. Over time, changes in the specific form opposition takes, and the extent it is gendered, and mobilization patterns connected to it, highlight aspects of temporality of opposition and the extent to which it is historically contingent, and dynamically constructed in arenas populated by movements and their allies, states and non-state opposition actors.

Gender equality and family in populist radical right agendas – similarities and differences in European Parliamentary debates 2014.

The chapter addresses the divergence and convergence of the framings of gender equality in nationalist and nativist discourses in the 2014 European Parliamentary elections. It compares how representatives of populist radical right parties in Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, frame gender equality and family issues in relation to migration and mobility in their electoral campaigns for the EP and during the first months of the 2014-2018 parliamentary cycle. Gender and family issues are part of the programs, campaigns and statements of the populist radical right, less prominently in the Nordic countries but quite centrally in the East, Central and Southern European countries as well as Germany. The analysis shows how rather than using similar gender and family frames, gender and family issues are instrumentalized to serve various exclusive forms of nationalism, anti-colonialist claims, or nationalist demographic sustainability arguments.

Towards a Conceptual Framework for Struggles over Democracy in Backsliding States: Gender Equality Policy in Central Eastern Europe

Trends of de-democratization across Europe and the Americas are emerging, along with opposition to gender equality and threats to previous gender equality policy gains. Yet de-democratization has been barely analysed through the lens of gender equality, and so far, efforts to systematically analyse the implications for inclusive democracy and the representation of gender interests are lacking. Backsliding in gender policies, and new forms of feminist engagement with hostile states and publics, also raise new challenges to the literature on gender and politics. In this article we explore gender equality policy backsliding in fragile democracies. Backsliding and de-democratization processes in these contexts pose a series of important challenges to how we have thought about gender policy change in progressive, mainly Western democratic contexts until now. We propose a conceptual framework discussing these two conceptually interesting realms: backsliding in gender equality policies, and feminist responses to backsliding. We illustrate our framework with empirical observations from four backsliding or temporarily backsliding Central and Eastern European countries: Croatia, Hungary, Poland and Romania. With our article we aim to contribute to the understanding of gendered aspects of de-democratization both in gender and politics literature and in mainstream democratization literature.

Krizsan A. Hungarians. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism. 2016.

Mobilizing for Policy Change: Women's Movements in Central and Eastern European Domestic Violence Policy Struggles

The aim of this edited volume is to explore and understand the influence of women's movement mobilization on domestic violence policy change in Central and Eastern Europe. Fifteen years ago domestic violence was barely present on the policy agenda of countries in the CEE region. By 2005 most countries of the region adopted laws and policies addressing it and proceeded with implementation. Domestic violence policy processes can be seen as one of the most remarkable successes of women's movements in the region, which may stand to challenge skepticism around the policy efficiency of women's movements in Central and Eastern Europe. While variation certainly exists in the extent to which policy change that ultimately took place responds to women's rights concerns, there is undoubted progress in all countries of the region. This volume addresses a series of questions: what are the dynamics that led to movement successes in the region? Which movements and the strategies they adopt are successful in promoting progressive policy change? Why do some movements manage to secure policy change that is women's rights friendly, while others lose control beyond setting the agenda? How do alliances, institutionalization and framing make a difference? And how patterns of achieving policy influence resemble or differ from patterns found in Western post-industrialized states? Are Central and Eastern European domestic violence policy processes any different? The book develops a theoretical framework explaining the links between mobilization and change, followed by the portrayal of in-depth case studies on Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, and Romania.

Stopping rape. Towards a comprehensive policy

The need to stop rape is pressing and, since it is the outcome of a wide range of practices and institutions in society, so too must the policies be to stop it This important book offers a comprehensive guide to the international policies developed to stop rape , together with case study examples on how they work. The book engages with the law and criminal justice system, health services, specialised services for victim-survivors, educational and cultural interventions, as well as how they can best be coordinated. It is informed by theory and evidence drawn from scholarship and practice from around the world. The book will be of interest to a global readership of students, practitioners and policy makers as well as anyone who wants to know how rape can be stopped. Contents Introduction; Strategy; Health and victim services; Law and the criminal justice system; Conflict zones; Culture, media and education; Economy; Conclusions.

The changing nature of European equality regimes: explaining convergence and variation.

This paper maps the changing nature of European equality regimes in order to establish the extent of variation or convergence across Europe and to evaluate the role of transnational policy paradigms and state-level institutions in shaping the emerging European equality regimes. We identify two significant tendencies in respect to European equality institutional regimes. First, a growing complexity in the institutional arrangements designed to address inequalities, with pre-2000 institutional arrangements increasingly augmented by newer equality institutions that adopt a judicialized approach to dealing with inequalities. Second, a Europe-wide tendency to widen the scope of equality policy thinking from a very small number of privileged inequality grounds (most frequently gender and ethnicity) to a much wider range of inequalities to be addressed by state policies. The overall impact of these two changes has been to create equality regimes characterized by a wide variety of forms and levels of protection for the different inequalities. This suggests that while a transnational policy paradigm has framed the evolving nature of equality regimes across Europe, the implementation of this paradigm is moulded by the power dynamics embedded in national and local equality institutions, creating a fragmented and complex patchwork of equality regimes that defy easy regional classification and complicate overly generalized narratives about the influence of global policy paradigms.

Frames in Contestation: International Human Rights Norms and Domestic Violence Policy Debates in Five Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality.

The quality of gender equality policies. A discursive approach

Can quality of gender+ equality policies be defined in ways that apply across different policy contexts and different policy moments? In light of different scholarly debates and empirical material from gender violence policy debates in Southern and Central Eastern Europe, this paper discusses dilemmas around defining the quality of gender+ equality policies. It proposes a two dimensional model. The first dimension links quality to procedural aspects: empowerment of women’s rights advocates at different stages of the policy process, and transformation with reference to prevailing contextual legacies. The second dimension is more substantive, and includes genderedness, intersectionality, and structurally transformative focus of policies. The paper illustrates how within the framework set by these criteria, quality of gender equality policies is constructed through policy debates in ways that are dependent on the different discursive, institutional, and structural factors specific to various policy contexts.

Krizsan A, Popa RM. Meanings and Uses of Europe in Policymaking against Domestic Violence in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Lombardo E, Forest M, editors. The Europeanization of Gender Equality Policies. A Discursive-sociological Approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan; 2012.
Krizsan A, Skjeie H, Squires J. Institutionalizing Intersectionality? A Theoretical Framework. In: Institutionalizing Intersectionality. The Changing Nature of European Equality Regimes. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan; 2012. p. 1-32. (Gender and Politics).
Krizsan A, Zentai V. Institutionalizing Intersectionality in Central and Eastern Europe: Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovenia. In: Institutionalizing Intersectionality. The Changing Nature of European Equality Regimes. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan; 2012. p. 179-208. (Gender and Politics).
Krizsan A, Skjeie H, Squires J. European Equality Regimes: Institutional Change and Political Intersectionality. In: Institutionalizing Intersectionality. The Changing Nature of European Equality Regimes . Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan; 2012. p. 209-40.

Group self-determination, individual rights, or social inclusion? Competing frames for ethnic counting in Hungary

Despite increasing demand from policymakers and academics alike, effective policies on ethnic data collection for social inclusion purposes are still absent in most of Europe. This paper proposes to explain the failure to produce these policies by the coexistence of and tensions among contradictory frames on ethnic counting. An in-depth analysis of Hungarian policies reveals that three mutually inconsistent policy frames connect ethnic counting to ethnic diversity in many different ways. These frames are group self-determination, individual rights, and social inclusion. This paper illustrates the tensions among the three through a discussion of two core but divisive aspects of collecting ethnic statistics: defining ethnic classifications for counting and defining membership in ethnic groups for policy purposes. Tensions among the three result in inconsistent and inefficient policies of ethnic counting.

Equality Architectures in Central and Eastern European Countries: A Framework for Analyzing Political Intersectionality in Europe

Equality institutions are major arenas for analyzing political intersectionality. This article looks at equality institutions in the context of European equality policy changes since 2000 and argues for an institutional typology that differentiates gender equality machineries from anti-discrimination bodies and consultative equality bodies. These functionally different equality institutions build up into larger equality institutional architectures in which the different components serve complementary strategies in pursuing complex gender equality policies. Equality institutional architectures vary in how they institutionalize the relationships between gender inequality and other inequality categories. Layered, hierarchical, and integrated models of equality institutional architectures are identified as different in institutionalizing the intersections and hierarchies of different inequality axes. The article argues that analyzing equality institutions through such a conceptual framework contributes to a more nuanced research agenda for analyzing intersectionality in policy practice, one that could be applicable, beyond equality institutions, also to the analysis of policy texts and civil society mobilization patterns. The article illustrates the developed conceptual framework through a comparative analysis of gender equality institutional architectures emerging in the last twenty years in the ten new European Union member states of Central and Eastern Europe.

Identity Politics or Social Inclusion? Policy Dilemmas on Ethnic Counting in Hungary

Despite increasing demand from policymakers and academics alike, effective policies on ethnic data collection for social inclusion purposes are still absent in most of Europe. This paper proposes to explain the failure to produce these policies by the coexistence of and tensions among contradictory frames on ethnic counting. An in-depth analysis of Hungarian policies reveals that three mutually inconsistent policy frames connect ethnic counting to ethnic diversity in many different ways. These frames are group self-determination, individual rights, and social inclusion. This paper illustrates the tensions among the three through a discussion of two core but divisive aspects of collecting ethnic statistics: defining ethnic classifications for counting and defining membership in ethnic groups for policy purposes. Tensions among the three result in inconsistent and inefficient policies of ethnic counting.

Krizsan A. Traveling Notions of Gender Equality Institutions Equality Architecture in Central and Eastern European Countries. In: Binder B, Jähnert G, Kerner I, Kilian E, Nickel HM, editors. Travelling Gender Studies. GrenzüberschreitendeWissens- und Institutionentransfers. Munster: Westfälisches Dampfboot; 2011. p. 78-97.

Europeanization in Making Policies against Domestic Violence in Central and Eastern Europe

This article looks at how Europe matters in the development of policies against domestic violence, a gender equality field outside the core European Union (EU) conditionality criteria. By analyzing the concrete workings and uses of Europe’s domestic violence policy-making in five Central and Eastern European countries, it identifies three mechanisms of Europeanization in the field and shows how together they work to expand the reach of the EU to this policy realm. The findings point toward an understanding of Europeanization based on social learning and dynamic, interactive processes of constructing what membership in the EU means in terms of domestic violence policy processes.

From formal adoption to enforcement. Post-accession shifts in EU impact on Hungary in the equality policy field

Research on EU conditionality in equality policy in Hungary shows that while the formal EU acquis has been transposed in a fast and successful way, its enforcement and application largely lag behind. Most researchers explain this weak enforcement with factors such as state capacity problems, the absence of inclusive policy making, and low norm resonance at the domestic level. This paper analyzes how changes in EU influence in the post-accession, post-conditionality period contribute to maintaining compliance with and improving the enforcement of EU equality policy in Hungary. It aims to understand implementation processes that take place in the post-accession period through the Hungarian case of equality policy. The paper argues that in order to capture the impact of the EU in the post-accession period, one must look beyond formal transposition-related mechanisms and increasingly at financial assistance and social learning mechanisms. While mechanisms connected to formal transposition might suggest major drawbacks in formal compliance, financial assistance and social learning mechanisms seem to address more directly the application and enforcement problems that Hungary faces in the equality realm. The paper shows that these mechanisms directly and indirectly impact the most crucial factors that determine enforcement – state capacity, the strength and involvement of civil society, and norm resonance. A slow but steady move toward sustainable improvement in enforcement is indicated.

Krizsan A, Bustelo M, Hadjigianni A. Domestic Violence: a public matter. In: Verloo M, editor. Multiple Meanings of Gender Equality. A Critical Frame Analysis of Gender Policies in Europe . Budapest: CEU Press; 2007.
Dombos T, Horvath A, Krizsan A. Where did Gender Disappear? Anti-Discrimination Policy in the EU Accession Process in Hungary. In: Multiple Meanings of Gender Equality. A Critical Frame Analysis of Gender Policies in Europe . Budapest: CEU Press; 2007. p. 233-56. (Center for Policy Studies Book Series).
Krizsan A. Ombudsmen and Similar Institutions for Protection against Racial and Ethnic Discrimination. In: European Yearbook of Minority Issues. Vol 4: 2004/5. Leiden-Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 2006.

Gender Equality Policy or Gender Mainstreaming? The Case of Hungary on the Road to an Enlarged Europe

The aim of this article is to analyze some of the core conceptual and implementation issues underpinning the process of introducing gender mainstreaming strategy in Hungary. It examines the approach of Hungarian policy makers to gender mainstreaming and evaluates the political framing of some crucial aspects of gender equality. Our argument in this article is twofold. First, we observe that the concept of gender mainstreaming as a cross-sectoral and comprehensive policy tool for achieving gender equality has only been sporadically present and this has mostly been located at the rhetorical level. Hungary has no comprehensive gender equality strategy and no distinctive gender equality policy instruments currently in place. Rather, the promotion of equal opportunity on all grounds has become a powerful policy approach in the last two to three years, often neglecting the specific requirements of gender equality. Secondly, we argue that the influence of the European Union (EU) accession process has had two stages, as far as gender equality policy is concerned in Hungary. The first stage, has referred primarily to the de jure harmonization of Hungarian legislation with relevant EU directives, but has brought very little harmonization at the policy level, and brought limited de facto realization of the rights imposed by the directives. The second stage, identified from mid-2003, is coterminous with Hungary joining the different EU level policy processes. This second stage signaled a shift from legislative harmonization to a more focused policy approach. This stage may be characterized as a direct process of EU-isation on Hungarian policy concepts and tools, such as gender mainstreaming. However, it is too early to judge the practical implications of this development.

Zentai V, Krizsan A, Toth H. National report on Hungary. In: Cruells M, Igareda N, editors. Women, Integration and Prison. Barcelona: Aurea Editores; 2005. p. 135-58.
Krizsan A, Zentai V. From Civil Society to Policy Research. The Case of the Soros Network and Its Roma Policies. In: Stone D, Maxwell S, editors. Bridges Across Boundaries: Global Knowledge Networks and International Development. London and New York: Routledge; 2004. p. 168-84.
Krizsan A, Zentai V. Introduction. In: Krizsan A, Zentai V, editors. Reshaping Globalization. Multilateral Dialogues and New Policy Initiatives. Budapest: CEU Press; 2003. p. 17-40. (CPS Publications).
Krizsan A. Race Statistics and Data Protection. The Case of Hungary. In: Krizsan A, editor. Ethnic Monitoring and Data Protection. The European Context. Budapest: CEU Press; 2001. (CPS Publications).