Publications of David Kral
Developing Open, Rule-based, Predictable, Non-discriminatory Trade Relations with Priority ODA Recipients
The purpose of this survey was to draw public attention on development policy and trade importance in policy implementation by reviewing what had been done thus far, what measures had been undertaken and how they had impacted, and what obstacles had been encountered, so that project participants could join forces in taking coordinated actions to overcome such obstacles and strengthen economic and trade potential of recipient countries. As it is well known, third country trade is subject to EU Common Trade Policy and trade negotiations are entrusted to EC as the competent authority rather than to individual member states. Therefore, the project aimed to join participants’ forces in finding a niche for common actions where new EU member states could interact with those recipient countries that had enjoyed long-standing trade relationships. Such an approach would allow formulating recommendations for a coordinated assistance delivery based on the identified obstacles standing in the way of development expansion.
The Role of Civil Society in Development Assistance and Aid Effectiveness
Civil society organizations play a significant role in international development cooperation. As a token of solidarity, a number of European states assisted developing countries’ strive for political and socio-economic development well before establishing the European Union and institutionalizing the European policy for non-governmental sector development. Quite often civil sector assistance provided to developing countries preceded, and in some cases even superseded state aid. Civil organizations operate in various areas and possess diverse competences. In recent years a group of non-governmental organizations specializing in the area of international development and humanitarian aid have been set up in a number of European countries. They allow placing donor-development assistance beneficiary relationship on new grounds. NGDOs conduct a dialog with EU institutions on issues of international development cooperation, participate in EU institutions’ work in their consulting capacity and implement EU funded development assistance programmes and projects. As a result of the cooperation with the civil sector some good practices are developed, thus enriching EU and member states’ agenda on development issues. Along with that civil organizations stir up their activity in international development assistance beneficiary states via enhancing cooperation with partnering NGOs in these countries. In the future it is expected such NGDOs to become the principal actors in development cooperation with the purpose of assisting developing countries in building up civil society foundations.
The Role of the Private Sector in Development Assistance and Effectiveness
Along with governments and intergovernmental agencies, civil society and private business play an important role in international development cooperation. It is a general perception that private sector remains in the periphery of development assistance. To make sure private sector is more actively involved in development policy, it is necessary to formulate guiding principles for cooperation and joint actions between the government and private sector. This means that, firstly, a common approach and joint participation of both government and private companies is to be applied. Under budget restriction conditions, governments develop detailed plans for supporting development that cannot be implemented without private sector involvement. Secondly, private sector participation has to be enhanced by entrusting it with a more central role in donor operations on the basis of clear incentives and reference points. A better mutual complementation and use of private sector potential will provide for increasing the limited governmental resources. Government and private sector involvement in development assistance delivery process is different and hence, collaboration between them leads to a better effect in combating famine and poverty in countries assisted.