Publications of Greskovits, B.
Capitalist Diversity on Europe's Periphery
With the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance in 1991, the Eastern European nations of the former socialist bloc had to figure out their newly capitalist future. Capitalism, they found, was not a single set of political-economic relations. Rather, they each had to decide what sort of capitalist nation to become. In Capitalist Diversity on Europe's Periphery, Dorothee Bohle and Béla Geskovits trace the form that capitalism took in each country, the assets and liabilities left behind by socialism, the transformational strategies embraced by political and technocratic elites, and the influence of transnational actors and institutions. They also evaluate the impact of three regional shocks: the recession of the early 1990s, the rolling global financial crisis that started in July 1997, and the political shocks that attended EU enlargement in 2004. Bohle and Greskovits show that the postsocialist states have established three basic variants of capitalist political economy: neoliberal, embedded neoliberal, and neocorporatist. The Baltic states followed a neoliberal prescription: low controls on capital, open markets, reduced provisions for social welfare. The larger states of central and eastern Europe (Poland, Hungary, and the Czech and Slovak republics) have used foreign investment to stimulate export industries but retained social welfare regimes and substantial government power to enforce industrial policy. Slovenia has proved to be an outlier, successfully mixing competitive industries and neocorporatist social inclusion. Bohle and Greskovits also describe the political contention over such arrangements in Romania, Bulgaria, and Croatia. A highly original and theoretically sophisticated typology of capitalism in postsocialist Europe, this book is unique in the breadth and depth of its conceptually coherent and empirically rich comparative analysis.
Wirtschaftswunder und Staatsverschuldung. Zur Politischen Ökonomie Osteuropas
Manufacturing miracles, welfare pathologies and the accumulation of national debt. On the political economy of east central Europe 20 years of democracy and market economics in east central Europe have been a great success. This distinguishes Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from almost all of the other post-Socialist states. Their model of success has two components. First, these four states succeeded in becoming the manufacturing site for trans-national companies. That creates jobs and brings capital into the region. Second, the governments softened the social hardships of the transformation by means of welfare state policies. The price is an enormous national debt. Since EU accession, it has been necessary to take action against this. Dissatisfaction is growing, and populist forces are increasingly supported.
Poverty, Inequality, and Democracy (II): East-Central Europe's Quandary
The article discusses strategies the Central-East European EU member states have applied to protect their populations against the social risks stemming from transformation, foreign-led development and the current economic crisis, and asks how they came about. Some governments spend relatively little on social protection, but employ a high share of their workforce in the public sector. Others offer the most generous support for pensioners and other underemployed groups. As shown in detail in the Hungarian and Latvian case, divergent welfare strategies can be traced back to different socialist legacies and perceptions of the past.
Transnationalization, Social Integration, and Capitalist Diversity in the East and South
This article analyzes the deep and shallow modes of international integration, semicore, semiperipheral, and peripheral profiles of global insertion, and the presence and absence of transformative state capacity and social cohesion, as interacting dimensions of capitalist diversity in post-socialist Eastern Europe and Latin America. On these grounds, it is argued that Cardoso and Faletto’s dependent development paradigm maintains validity. When adapted to the new conditions, their approach is able to capture the overlapping and divergent aspects of capitalist development in both regions. Recent patterns of development demonstrate that although dependency, stemming from the unequal distribution of resources, roles, and opportunities, continues to be an important aspect of the international division of labor, it ceases to contradict even complex forms of industrialization. Similarly, notwithstanding the asymmetrical power relationships characterizing them, the new transnational integration regimes allow and sometimes help formation of new nation states with improved regulatory capacities. Finally, dependency does not necessarily undermine domestic social inclusion. Rather, it is up to the democratic competition to strike a balance between the requirements of promising international and socially acceptable domestic integration.
Wirtschaftswunder und Staatsverschuldung Zur politischen Ökonomie Ostmitteleuropas
20 Jahre Demokratie und Marktwirtschaft in Ostmitteleuropa sind ein großer Erfolg. Dies unterscheidet Polen, Tschechien, die Slowakei und Ungarn von fast allen anderen postsozialistischen Staaten. Das Erfolgsmodell hat zwei Komponenten. Zum einen ist es den vier Staaten gelungen, zum Fertigungsstandort transnationaler Konzerne zu werden. Das schafft Arbeitsplätze und bringt Kapital in die Region. Zum anderen haben die Regierungen die sozialen Härten der Transformation wohlfahrtsstaatlich abgefedert. Der Preis ist eine enorme Staatsverschuldung. Seit dem EU-Beitritt muss gegen diese vorgegangen werden. Die Unzufriedenheit wächst, populistische Kräfte finden immer mehr Zulauf.
The Political Economy of State-Society Relations in Hungary and Poland : From Communism to the European Union
The article reviews the book "The Political Economy of State-Society Relations in Hungary and Poland: From Communism to the European Union," by Anna Seleny.
Gazdasági nehézségek és politikai egyensúlyvesztés Kelet-Közép-Európában
Economic difficulties and the loss of political balance in East Central EuropeThe combined evidence from the ECE region shows that large groups of citizens have chosen to refrain from participation in newly established democratic institutions, and that the remaining active electorate has become radicalized. These processes originate from external and internal economic and ideological causes and endanger the future and quality of democracy in Eastern and Central Europe.
Piacok, globalizáció, harmadik út : Lányi Kamilla válogatott tanulmányai
This article reviews the book "Piacok, globalizáció, harmadik út : Lányi Kamilla válogatott tanulmányai (Markets, globalisation, third way : selected studies by Kamilla Lányi)".
The State, Internationalization, and Capitalist Diversity in Eastern Europe
This article contributes to the debate on varieties of capitalism in Eastern Europe in three ways. First, four types of capitalist regimes that differ in particular institutional configurations and performances are empirically identified: the state-crafted neoliberalism of the Baltic States, the more directly world-market driven neoliberalism of the CIS countries, the embedded neoliberalism of the Visegrad countries, and neo-corporatism in Slovenia. Second, the diversity of capitalist regimes--is explained as a result of the complex interplay of external factors--specifically world commodity and financial markets, international institutions and foreign direct investment--and different state capacities to implement reform choices. Third, caution is given against an uncritical application of the dominant approach of comparative political economy, varieties of capitalism, since it is ill suited to study the emergence of institutions, their international embeddedness, and the semiperipheral character of East European capitalisms.
Economic Woes And Political Disaffection
The article explores why politics across Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has been unstable since the accession of ten countries in the region in the European Union (EU) beginning in 2004. Since this expansion, the region saw increasing riots and mass demonstration, the shift of centrist parties to radicalized groups, dramatic drop in voter turnout and dissatisfaction with democracy and a lack of trust in its institutions, as revealed by opinion polls. The author believes that both external and domestic influences contribute to democratic stability in Europe. She argues that it is EU pressures for macroeconomic convergence that cause political imbalances in many countries in CEE, but EU accession also contributed to democratic stability in the candidate states.
Solidarity, Identity and the Contest of Democracy in Central-Eastern Europe
This article discusses David Ost's book The Defeat of Solidarity: Anger and Politics in Postcommunist Europe. The author contends that scholars focusing on East Europe, including Ost, should pay more attention to social inclusion, identity politics, & democratic quality. First, the author believes that Ost does not take into account the diverse connections between solidarity, identity & politics within the postcommunist market economies. For example, the market-radical Baltic states offer little social protection & state assistance, whereas large welfare expenditures lead to fiscal instability in Poland & Hungary. Second, Ost underestimates the power of non-economic ideas, such as religion & nationalism, in East Europe, according to the author. Such passions could be politically powerful even before economic trouble emerged. Finally, the author disagrees with Ost's depiction of Poland as a country where social solidarity has been lost. In fact, the author considers Polish elites as the most socially sensitive political class within the East European countries. Tables, References. A. Kallioinen
Leading Sectors and Leading Regions : Economic Restructuring and Regional Inequality in Hungary since 1990
This article examines factors accounting for persisting regional inequality in Hungary during the regime change from socialism to a market economy in 1990. We examine the determinants of regional inequality through the lens of leading sector theory which has been used to explain why some ex-socialist countries have done better than others during the transformation. In other words, we ask whether some regions of Hungary are doing better than others for the same reasons that some ex-socialist countries have outperformed their counterparts. We use county level data from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office to examine whether the quantity and types of foreign direct investment counties have received since 1990 are associated with regional inequality in per capita GDP. We find that foreign capitalists concentrate human-capital-intensive investment in already well performing locations because they have similar supply structures to their home economies. We also contend that no measure of institutional modernization is likely to make lagging regions attractive candidates for human-capital-intensive investments in the near future. Hence, regardless of the national state's efforts to target development to lagging areas, or the effectiveness of local institutions, lagging regions are likely to remain underdeveloped. We recommend that future field-based research be conducted to examine the nexus between FDI, the nation state and localities. Unraveling interrelationships between these three political economy sites will expose the causal forces sustaining regional inequalities during post-socialism. Cet article analyse les facteurs qui expliquent l'inegalite persistante entre regions hongroises lors du passage du socialisme a une economie de marche en 1990. Nous examinons les determinants de l'inegalite regionale a travers la theorie du secteur moteur qui a servi a expliquer pourquoi certains ex-pays socialistes ont mieux reussi que d'autres pendant la transition. Plus precisement, nous cherchons a savoir si des regions de Hongrie font mieux que d'autres pour les memes raisons que certains ex-pays socialistes ont eu de meilleurs resultats que leurs homologues. Nous utilisons des donnees departementales provenant du Bureau central hongrois de la statistique afin d'examiner si la quantite et les types d'investissement direct a l'etranger que les departements ont recu depuis 1990 sont associes a une inegalite regionale en termes de PIB par habitant. Nous etablissons ainsi que les capitalistes etrangers concentrent leur investissement a fort capital humain dans des sites qui presentent deja de bons resultats, les structures d'approvisionnement etant similaires a celles de leur economie nationale. Nous soutenons egalement que, dans le court terme, aucune mesure de modernisation institutionnelle ne va sans doute transformer les regions en retard en candidates interessantes pour des investissements a fort capital humain. En consequence, quels que soient les efforts de l'Etat national en vue de developper specifiquement les zones en decalage, ou l'efficacite des institutions locales, les regions en retard resteront sans doute moins developpees. Nous conseillons d'entreprendre a l'avenir des etudes de terrain afin d'analyser le lien entre IDE, Etat national et regions. Demeler les relations entre ces trois centres de l'economie politique revelera les forces en cause dans la durabilite des inegalites regionales pendant l'apres-socialisme. Adapted from the source document.
A transnacionális kapitalizmus változatai Kelet-Közép-Európában
Cikkünk tárgya a szocialista rendszer bukása után Kelet-Közép-Európában kialakult háromfajta kapitalizmusnak, a balti államok tisztán neoliberális, a visegrádi országok beágyazott neoliberális, és Szlovénia neokorporatista rendszerének elemzése. Bemutatjuk, hogy a három országcsoportban az eltérõ mértékû és arányú állami beavatkozás különbözõ intézményi szerkezetre és teljesítményre vezetett négy fontos szférában: a piaci intézmények, az ipar növekedése és szerkezetváltása, a társadalmi kohézió fenntartása, és a makrogazdasági stabilitás területén. Az eltérõ rendszerek kialakulását két tényezõ összjátékával magyarázzuk. E gyrészt kulcsszerepet tulajdonítunk a szocializmus összeomlását közvetlenül követõ idõszak politikai döntéseinek. E lemezzük, hogy hogyan befolyásolta e döntéseket a szocialista rendszer öröksége, és az, hogy a politika szereplõi az örökséget a nemzeti függetlenség és a gazdasági fejlõdés zálogának vagy inkább akadályának tekintették-e. E különbségek azt is érthetõbbé teszik, miért volt más és más mértékû a három kapitalista rendszerrel szembeni társadalmi ellenállás, és miért tért el a politikai verseny és a kialakuló demokrácia jellege. Másrészt kiemelt fontosságot tulajdonítunk a nemzetközi és transznacionális tényezõk, különösen az Európai Unió és a nemzetközi nagyvállalatok hatásának.
Building a Democratic Market Society in Hungary
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Capitalism without Compromise: Strong Business and Weak Labor in Eastern Europe's New Transnational Industries
This paper contributes to the debate on the social impact of globalization. It focuses on the mediating role of the sectoral pattern of transnational production relocation to the postcommunist economies of Eastern Europe. We argue that the collapse of the socialist heavy industries and the eastward relocation of traditional light industries initially forced the social conditions of the East European countries to converge at the bottom and deepened the gap between the West and the East. Later, the east-ward migration of high-skilled labor and capital-intensive industries and jobs led to decreasing social disparity between the West and some of the former socialist countries. However, convergence appears uncertain, costly, and uneven, and coincides with increasing social disparity within the group of East European new members and candidates of the European Union.
Die Suche nach dem ‘wahren’ sozialistischen Bruttosozialprodukt
The Search for the ‘True’ Socialist GNP.
The Postsocialist Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe
What is attempted in the East is catching up with the West from a recent position of worse-than-Latin-American economic backwardness. Until now, populations that were sentenced to political patience by the logic of poor democracies have reluctantly backed this enormous effort. Central and Eastern Europe's post-socialist path is characterized by an increasingly discredited ideology of a return to Europe and a non-European combination of substitute institutions of development: radical opening towards the world economy, damaged institutions of labor representation, eroded state capacity, and often strong private and foreign dominance in the financial and other strategic sectors. There is a chance for a few countries to succeed. Yet various development traps may be more likely in the end than a "Great Spurt" in the Gerschenkronian sense.
Development Paths on Europe's Periphery: Hungary's and Poland's Return to Europe Compared
The authors argue that the successful economic & political development of Hungary & Poland in the 1990s, in part, is due to their relatively favorable "communist legacy" including the continuous existence of their nations & states, their legacies of economic & political freedom; & the relatively modest distortions of their economies. In contrast to these similarities, it is mainly the differences of these countries' strategic choices & commitments after the collapse of communism that explain the divergence of their development paths. In the authors' view, Hungarian capitalism can be called "foreign-led" in the sense that most leading industries & services are oriented toward, & dependent on, foreign markets & finance, & are operated by foreign owners, typically multinational firms & banks. Poland, in turn, seems to have attempted a "national capitalist" trajectory. Unlike the Hungarian, the Polish economy is significantly less export-oriented, & relies much less on foreign direct investment & foreign ownership. Furthermore, at least during the period 1994-1997, the Polish state took responsibilities for a number of strategic sectors. Although this state-capitalist project crumbles down, it still significantly shapes the development path Poland is traveling on today. 58 References. Adapted from the source document.
Les analyses concurrentes de la societé de marché postcommuniste : retour sur le passé d'une controverse
Rival Views of Postcommunist Market Society. Retake on the Past of a Controversy Dependence of TransitologyAn examination of scholarly debates on the results of capitalist expansion & the influence of communism on the emerging market societies of Eastern Europe illustrates the commonalties between social scientists' views on postcommunist approaches to capitalism & earlier views on the adoption of capitalism by previously noncapitalist societies. Rivalry in the earlier approaches is said to have transformed itself into the current debate. Social scientific understanding of system changes typically involves the hashing out of rival theories, but contemporary competing explanations for postcommunist market society are also tied to the new institutional, political, & psychological ideas that have characterized social science during the end of the 20th century. 4 Tables, 57 References. D. Weibel
Kétarcú demokratikus kapitalizmus Magyarországon
The two faces of democratic capitalism in Hungary
Populista átmenetprogramok Magyarországon
Populist Transformation Programs in Hungary
Lehetséges-e más, mint neoliberális stratégia?
Neoliberal Strategy: Is there Any Alternative to It?
La transformation Hongroise : grévistes de la faim, syndicalistes, et membres du gouvernement
Cultures & Conflits speciel issue Spring 1995: The Processes Of Democratic TransitionHungary's transformation: hunger strikers, unionists, and members of the government
Latin-Amerika sorsára jut-e Kelet-Közép Európa?” : Gazdasági reform és politikai stabilitás az új demokráciákban
Is Latin America the Fate of East Central Europe? Economic Reform and Political Stability in the New Democracies
Szegény országok demokráciája
Democracy in Poor Countries
Demagogic Populism in Eastern Europe?
Using Latin America for comparison, examines the factors why economic populism has not yet emerged in Eastern Europe. It is contended that while a demagogic populism has surfaced, economic policy has remained within the neoliberal mainstream. The reasons for populism's development in Latin America, but not in Eastern Europe, include the structural differences in postcommunist Eastern Europe, including a more balanced income distribution, a stronger economic interconnection with the export sectors, & an unprecedented recession. Also cited are the existing populist-like features of communist central planning including: an appeal to organized labor, import substitution policies aimed at regional autarchy, a preference for the public over the private sector, & an emphasis on growth & income redistribution. It is consequently argued that Eastern Europe could not afford economic populism after 1990 because of macroeconomic conditions. M. Greenberg
Külföldi kereskedelmi reformprogramok és hatásuk a gazdaságra
Foreign Trade Reform Programs and their Economic Impact
The Use of Compensation in Economic Adjustment Programmes
The author attempts to assess the relevance of compensation, a specific set of economic policies and political measures, by which governments try to ease political tensions arising from their stabilization and adjustment programs. When collecting certain controversial issues and reacting to them, the author aims at developing a conceptual framework for the explanation of diverse characteristics and patterns of compensation to be found in concrete economic reform episodes. The discussion addresses two main issues: (1) who are (or are to be) compensated; and (2) how are they compensated if economic stabilization and adjustment is to sustain.
A gazdasági alkalmazkodás vesztesei és a kompenzáció
The Losers of Economic Adjustment and their Compensation
Politics in Economic Hard Times
Dominant Economy, Subordinated Politics. The Absence of Economic Populism in the Transition of Central-East Europe
An examination of populism, one of the most important political issues of current Hungarian politics, & a crucial issue for all Central & East European countries in the process of transition. Three main theses are developed & defended: (1) structural antagonisms are not a characteristic feature of Central & East European societies; (2) there is no macroeconomic constellation favorable for initiating a populist economic movement in Central & Eastern Europe; (3) recent structural, political, & macroeconomic development may, however, increase vulnerability of this region to economic populism in the forthcoming future. 3 Tables, 33 References. Adapted from the source document.
Hidak – de hová? Magyarország és a világkiállítás
Bridges – But Where They Lead? Hungary and the World Fair
Western Technological Policies and the Approach of Hungarian Industrial Policy
Tamás Földi, ed. World Economic Environment and the Hungarian Economy, Special Volume of Acta Oeconomica.The management of Hungarian industry attentively watches the trends of western industrial development, but experience shows that the foreign tendencies of development only influence the ideals visualized by Hungarian industrial policy, not its practice. As well as reviewing some tendencies appearing in the technological policies of advanced countries, this paper attempts to analyze whether or not the ideals of development influenced by western examples are tailored for, and should be followed by, Hungary. The author arrives at the conclusion that not only is the practice of Hungarian industrial policy untenable, but also its ideals for development are inadequate.
A 45-milliárdos exportfejlesztő hitelprogram (1976-80)
The 45-"billion" Credit Program to Stimulate Exports
A nyugati technológiapolitikák és a magyar iparpolitikai szemlélet
Western Technology Policies and the Approach of the Hungarian Industrial Policy
A magyar-lengyel kooperáció két esete
Two Cases of the Hungarian-Polish Cooperation