Publications of Ghaleb, Alexander

An Anthropological Comparative Study Of The European Oil Sanctions Against Iran

fter the Baghdad and Moscow talks between P5+1—the United States, Britain, Russia, China, France, and Germany—and Iran did not lead to any serious concessions on either side over Tehran's nuclear program, the European Union moved forward with the enforcement of an oil embargo on Iran starting the first of July, 2012. This paper looks at the robustness of the Iran oil sanctions from theoretical and cultural anthropological lenses, addressing why the current two-track policy pursued by the United States and the European Union on Iran, which includes the imposition of an oil embargo, is not sufficient to break the current nuclear stalemate.

Natural Gas as an Instrument of Russian State Power

This book is meant to provide an unbiased examination of: the scarcity of natural gas in the contemporary security environment; the salience of natural gas in Russia’s national security strategies; and, the natural gas pipeline politics in Eastern and Central Europe. While the tendency of most energy security scholars has been to collectively analyze Europe’s dependency on oil and gas, this author analyzes the two energy markets separately, and demonstrates that natural gas is a more potent instrument of coercion in the contemporary security environment than oil was in the traditional security environment. Sufficient evidence is also provided that Russia continues to perceive NATO as a hostile alliance, and that future natural gas disruption by Russia—who holds a monopoly on the supply of natural gas via pipeline to Eastern and Central Europe—will prove deadly to the economies of many NATO member states. The salience of natural gas as an instrument of state power is emphasized in Russia’s negotiations with Ukraine; this monograph credits the 2006 and 2009 gas wars between the two nations as the main causes for the failure of the Orange Revolution in Ukraine. Ultimately, today, Russia uses the same tools it used in Ukraine—in the context of natural gas negotiations—to bribe Western European nations; to divide the NATO Alliance; and to rule over its traditional sphere of influence in Eastern and Central Europe. Finally, the author emphasizes that with the Russian construction of Nord Stream and South Stream natural gas pipelines, and unless alternatives to Russian natural gas are found, it is only a matter of time until Russia will use natural gas as an instrument of coercion against NATO member states.

The Romanian Civil War: A Theoretical Discussion on the Proximate Causes of Violence

The paper is a theoretical account of the Romanian Revolution viewed from the eyes of an American international security strategist who recounts his childhood in Romania. The author believes that the unresolved nature of the violence during the revolution discouraged many historians and political scientists from applying genuine theoretical foundations to the study of a sustained conflict that resulted in 1,104 official deaths and 3,352 wounded. Ultimately, the author suggests, the proximate causes of the violence in 1989 provide sufficient evidence to define the revolution as a coup related civil war. The fact that a conflict that meets the casualty element of the civil war definition does not attract the attention of the academia is an injustice not only against the families of the victims of the conflict, but also against the study of contemporary history itself.