Publications of Julia Szalai

Migrant, Roma and Post-Colonial Youth in Education across Europe. Being 'Visibly Different'

This book compares the educational experiences of adolescents from a variety of 'visible' ethnic minority groups such as Roma in Central Europe, post-colonial minorities in France and England, Turks and Arabs in Germany, and recent immigrants in Scandinavia. Focusing on underprivileged urban contexts, it reveals the structural inequalities and also the often conflict-ridden inter-ethnic relations which develop in classrooms, playgrounds and larger communities. Ranging from explorations of quasi-ghettos to experiments in racial and ethnic integration, the encountered situations shed light on the challenges of managing diversity in local communities and on an all-societal level. The contributions consider both the routine practices of ethnic distinctions and colour-blindness in schooling, as well as the ways in which various actors - students, teachers, and parents - experience and understand these practices. In doing so, this volume reveals that despite the broad consensus on equal opportunity as a desirable aim, ethnic differentiation remains a key source of exclusion across Europe.

Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Contexts: Hungary, Romania, Serbia

The Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Communities research endeavor explored the key factors perpetuating Roma marginalization at the municipal and community level in three countries of Central and Eastern Europe: Hungary, Romania and Serbia. It sought to analyze the economic, political, demographic, and social forces at local level which shape practices and consequences of social exclusion and potential pathways to inclusion. A multi-layered approach was designed to implement this research idea: the locality (municipality) of ethnically mixed communities composed the first level; the Roma communities, neighborhoods or segments of selected localities were examined as the second level; and interethnic relations within the selected localities were identified as the third level of the research approach. This volume presents the country studies and a comparative analysis about local communities that mobilize a variety of means and actions to either maintain clear-cut ethnic distinctions or to move toward a certain degree of inclusion.

Szalai J. Roma Marginalization and Exclusion in a Comparative Perspective. In: Szalai J, Zentai V, editors. Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Contexts: Hungary, Romania, Serbia. Budapest: Central European University; 2014. 41. (CPS Books).

Roma Marginalization and Exclusion in a Comparative Perspective

The "Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Communities" inquiry explored the economic, political, demographic, and social forces at municipal and community level which shape practices and consequences of social exclusion and potential pathways to inclusion. Phase 2 of this research focused on a representative sample of municipalities (20–30 per country) in Hungary, Romania, and Serbia to explore basic local social services and infrastructure provisions, conditions of political participation of the Roma, and local interventions targeting Roma inclusion. This research phase relied on structured field research collecting both quantitative and qualitative data.

Varadi M, Virag T. Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization: Experiences from Hungary. In: Szalai J, Zentai V, editors. Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Contexts: Hungary, Romania, Serbia. Budapest: Central European University; 2014. 33. (CPS Books).

Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization: Experiences from Hungary

The "Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Communities" inquiry explored the economic, political, demographic, and social forces at municipal and community level which shape practices and consequences of social exclusion and potential pathways to inclusion. Phase 2 of this research focused on a representative sample of municipalities (20–30 per country) in Hungary, Romania, and Serbia to explore basic local social services and infrastructure provisions, conditions of political participation of the Roma, and local interventions targeting Roma inclusion. This research phase relied on structured field research collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. This short country report is based on the Final Country Report on the Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Hungary, edited in June 2013 by Tünde Virág, with contributions from Márton Czirfusz, Katalin Kovács, Szilvia Rézműves, Gyöngyi Schwarcz, András Száraz, Dezső Szegedi, Gergely Tagai, Annamária Uzzoli, Monika Mária Váradi, and Zsuzsa Vidra. Katalin Fehér and Anna Hamar also contributed to the fieldwork.

Vincze E. Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization: Experiences from Romania. In: Szalai J, Zentai V, editors. Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Contexts: Hungary, Romania, Serbia. Budapest: Central European University; 2014. 31. (CPS Books).

Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization: Experiences from Romania

The "Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Communities" inquiry explored the economic, political, demographic, and social forces at municipal and community level which shape practices and consequences of social exclusion and potential pathways to inclusion. Phase 2 of this research focused on a representative sample of municipalities (20–30 per country) in Hungary, Romania, and Serbia to explore basic local social services and infrastructure provisions, conditions of political participation of the Roma, and local interventions targeting Roma inclusion. This research phase relied on structured field research collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. This short country report is based on the Final Country Report on the Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Romania, edited in June 2013 by Enikő Vincze, with contributions from Cătălin Dîrțu, Adrian-Nicolae Furtună, Margareta Herțanu, Iulia-Elena Hossu, Elena Mihalache, Rafaela Maria Muraru, Florina Pop, Mihaela Preda, and Daniel Tudora. The Short Country report is also co-authored by this group in the sense that these colleagues collected and processed the field data. However, overall interpretation and presentation of the data was done by Enikő Vincze (the coordinator of the Romanian research team), therefore, this report is single-authored. The text refers to "us/we" or "I" according to fieldwork knowledge or interpretation. The Romanian research team also included Ramona Făcăleț, Andrei Mihail Tudor and Elena Trifan (as a volunteer) at the level of localities, and Nicolae Arsene, Violeta Dumitru, Victor Făcăleț, Marcela Șerban and Alina Tuța at the county level.

Cvejić S. Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization: Experiences from Serbia. In: Szalai J, Zentai V, editors. Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Contexts: Hungary, Romania, Serbia. Budapest: Central European University; 2014. 31. (CPS Books).

Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization: Experiences from Serbia

The "Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Local Communities" inquiry explored the economic, political, demographic, and social forces at municipal and community level which shape practices and consequences of social exclusion and potential pathways to inclusion. Phase 2 of this research focused on a representative sample of municipalities (20–30 per country) in Hungary, Romania, and Serbia to explore basic local social services and infrastructure provisions, conditions of political participation of the Roma, and local interventions targeting Roma inclusion. This research phase relied on structured field research collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. This short country report is based on the Final Country Report on the Faces and Causes of Roma Marginalization in Serbia, edited in June 2013 by Slobodan Cvejić, with contributions from Irena Petrović, Dunja Poleti, Marjan Muratović and Nenad Vladisavljev who assisted in data collection and processing. The following individuals conducted field research: Dejan Živković, Dejan Raimović, Goran Jumerović, Goran Lakatuš and Milica Pavel, under the leadership of Marjan Muratović and Nenad Vladisavljev.

Szalai J. A Voice To Be Heard: Citizenship Rights and Political Participation of the 'New' Poor in Contemporary Democracies. In: Farrell G, Oliveri F, editors. Towards a Europe of Shared Social Responsibilities: Challenges and Strategies. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 2013. p. 131-56. (Trends in Social Cohesion).
Szalai J. “Cultural Otherness” or the Ethnicisation of Poverty? Some Considerations on How Postcommunist Welfare Reforms Affect Hungary’s Roma Minority. In: Reconciling Migrants’ Well-Being and the Public Interest: Welfare State, Firms and Citizenship in Transition. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 2008. p. 159-83.
Szalai J. How Many Histories Do We Have?. Vol 47.; 2006. (The Hungarian Quarterly; vol 47; no 3).

The Puzzle of Success: Hungarian Entrepreneurs at the Turn of the Millennium

Drawing on in-depth interview-based research carried out around 'the turn of the millennium', this article examines the emergence of medium and large entrepreneurs in post-socialist Hungary. It seeks to identify the skills necessary to successfully manage property amid the harsh circumstances of the post-socialist socio-economic crisis, and points to the importance of the pre-transition life histories and occupational experiences of the new entrepreneurs. By analysing their family histories and traditional routes of schooling, it shows how the emerging bourgeoisie accumulated knowledge, skills, and the necessary forms of habitual behaviour to construct, within a surprisingly short time, a firm social standing and widespread influence. In the concluding part of this article, an attempt is made to combine the economic and sociological findings discussed here, and also to propose some theoretical conclusions.

Szalai J. Conflicting Interests in Shaping Hungary’s New Private Pension Scheme. In: Rein M, Schmähl W, editors. Rethinking theWelfare State. The Political Economy of Pension Reform. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar; 2004. p. 348-72.
Szalai J. Conflicting Struggles for Recognition: Clashing Interests of Gender and Ethnicity in Contemporary Hungary. In: Hobson B, editor. Recognition Struggles and Social Movements. Contested Identities, Agency and Power . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2003. p. 188-215.
Szalai J. Struggles for Recognition on the Battlefield of Social Services. In: Finlay J, Debicki M, editors. Delivering Public Services in Central and Eastern Europe: Trends and Developments. Bratislava: NISPAcee Press; 2003. p. 297-300.

Social Outcasts in 21st Century Hungary

Part One of this study summarizes the general view of poverty since the political regime changed, and the practical consequences. The previous regime’s denial and hiding of the poverty issue has had several effects. One is that poverty is considered foreign to the system, simply the fallout of economic crisis, and therefore transitional. The belief in its transitional nature has covered up the difference between mass impoverishment and lasting poverty, which always existed, is becoming increasingly serious, and can easily escalate into permanent exclusion. The need to dismantle an overcentralized state is a major reason why the poverty problem has not been understood. Public expenditure can be reduced with little resistance if only those ‘who really need it’ are assisted. This policy suggests that poverty is ‘accidental’ and individualized, and that the victims can be blamed. Another, more practical consequence has been the segregating effect of separate institutional poverty management. Institutional reforms have created a huge network of decentralized institutions, which have cut off poverty from other social problems. The social nature of poverty has thus been hidden under the guise of individualization as well as by transferring management to small communities. At the same time, these measures have anchored lines of demarcation between mainstream society and the poor. Part Two of the study focuses on the internal stratification of the poor. The result of impoverishment is that there is now a mass of income-poor people (retirees, low-income families, parents of young children), whose problems are ‘only’ ones of distribution. Since their bonds to mainstream society have not been fatally injured, their situation could be resolved with money and economic expansion. The other group of the poor are the long-standing, extremely poor. They are in a consolidated state of poverty from which escape is almost impossible. As individuals, people without families, or whose families are in a state of collapse, are in particularly dire situations. Others, who are unskilled and come from less competitive strata and have been driven off the increasingly limited labor market to lock themselves into the underground economy, are in a similarly ominous position. There are also two groups that are collectively poor. It is almost impossible to break out of tiny pockets of isolated settlements and of regions particularly depressed by mass unemployment. The other collective is made up of the victims of the dead-end of forced assimilation, primarily the Roma poor which make up 60–80 per cent of the Gypsy population.