Publications of Jenne, EK
Barriers to Reintegration after Ethnic Civil War: Lessons from Minority Returns and Restitution in the Balkans
This article evaluates the record of minority return in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo to assess the viability of ethnic reintegration in the wake of protracted sectarian violence. Comparative analysis reveals that the logic of post-war ethnic spoils has greatly limited the success of such programmes. What success has been achieved is largely due to third party efforts to disrupt patronage networks and challenge post-war authorities. I conclude that these factors are more significant barriers to reintegration than inexorable ethnic hatreds and fears derived from memories of war. Because such barriers are more readily overcome than entrenched grassroots hostilities, there may be more hope for reintegration than previously thought. However, the systematic failure of the international community to protect and assist prospective minority returnees suggests that continued scepticism of post-war reintegration is in order.
Ethnicity and electoral politics
The article reviews the book "Ethnicity and Electoral Politics" by Jóhanna Kristón Birnir.
People power : ethnic reintegration as a method of conflict management
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007This paper explores the record of ethnic reintegration—the use of refugee return and property restitution to recreate multi-ethnic states in post-conflict settings—in the cases of post-conflict Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia and Kosovo. I aim to determine the overall success of this technique in reestablishing civic identities in divided societies. An evaluation of these cases suggests that the success of this strategy requires a considerable commitment on the part of third parties. There appear to be three principal factors that account for variation in success: (1) the use of coercion to return minorities to majority communities, (2) speedy intervention in the post-conflict period, and (3) a compliant host government. The difficulty of securing these conditions should serve as a warning against entering into such programs lightly. However, given the expressed desire of the international community to avoid the alternative solution (ethnic partition), a concerted effort to achieve these conditions may be well worth the effort.
The roads not taken : alternatives to ethnic partition in Bosnia and Kosovo
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006This paper explores the history of outside intervention, specifically coerced partition (implementing segregationist institutions through force), in the cases of Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s. The aim is to determine the overall success of this technique in consolidating peace and promoting multi-ethnic democracy in divided societies. The effectiveness of coerced partition is, on this evidence, discouraging at best. In Bosnia, implementing consociational institutions that tie ethnicity to territory has had the paradoxical effect of reifying the divide between the three groups, impeding refugee return, and preventing the emergence of inter-ethnic political cooperation. In Kosovo, the de facto ethnic partition of the protectorate from Serbia proper has further segmented Kosovar inhabitants along ethnic lines, hindered refugee return, and created a climate of insecurity among ethnic Serbs. This paper argues that alternative methods of mediation (mostly in the realm of preventive diplomacy) existed at every stage of both conflicts. Moreover, since the external actors ultimately used coercion to achieve peace in both cases, integrationist institutions might have been imposed in Bosnia and Kosovo to divorce ethnicity from territory and thereby develop truly multi-ethnic democracies.
Rebels and scapegoats : two logics of minority repression
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 The article examines why a state will target some minorities for political exclusion, but not others. Quiescent minorities suffer just as much, if not more, political repression as rebellious minorities, according to large-N analysis of minority repression in the 1990s. It suggested that there are two distinct logics of minority repression, one that applies to rebel groups and the other that applies to quiescent minorities.
Dilemmas of divorce : how secessionist identities cut both ways
Secessionist groups, if they are to achieve their goal of independence, require both domestic and international support, although neither is easy to obtain. One strategy that such groups may pursue is the use of their identity to gain support both at home and abroad. What causes leaders of a secessionist movement to focus on one identity over another and why do these identities change over time? How much flexibility do elites have in making these choices? This article explores the ways in which latent identities simultaneously constrain and empower secessionist groups in achieving their political ambitions. We argue that the leaders of such groups engage in "identity layering" to achieve statehood for their region. Two cases, the Eritrean and Macedonian secessionist movements, are used to illustrate both the logic of identity layering and the dilemmas it entails. The central argument is that the configuration of constraints in each case largely determines the identities that are selected and layered onto the group in question. The use of such identities may also generate resistance – from within the secessionist entity or from outside – which in turn creates incentives for identity change. This analysis shows, first, that territorial identities (as opposed to ethnic or ideological ones) tend to serve as the group's primary mobilizational base, and second, that domestic imperatives weigh more heavily than international pressures in determining the success of these choices.
Scapegoats and rebels : an MAR analysis of problem minorities in post-communist Europe
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004.The paper combines family system theory with Susan Fiske's social psychology work on power and stereotypes to argue that minorities enact roles on the state level that mimic roles found in the nuclear family. The model is used to generate and test tentative hypotheses concerning why, in a single state, some minorities radicalize whereas others do not; and why some minorities experience repression, while others remain relatively unmolested.
East Central Europe in the modern world : the politics of the borderlands from pre-to postcommunism
This article reviews the book "East Central Europe in the Modern World : The Politics of the Borderlands from Pre- to Postcommunism" by Andrew C. Janos (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2000)