Publications of Bokros, L.

Bokros L. A reformok kritikus tömege. In: L. M, editor. A jelen a jövő múltja : járatlan utak, járt úttalanságok. Vol 2. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó; 2009. p. 194-240. (Gazdaságpolitikai kerekasztal; vol 2).
Bokros L. Az állam alkati torzulásainak eredete az átmeneti társadalmakban : a visegrádi országok esete különös tekintettel Magyarországra. In: Muraközy L, editor. Fecseg a felszín és hallgat a mély : tudatok és tudatalattik a gazdaságpolitikában. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó; 2007. p. 213-57. (Gazdaságpolitikai kerekasztal).

Az oligarchia és a demokrácia harca az átmeneti társadalmakban

Az önálló államiság kései elnyerésében testet öltő nemzeti újjászületés bűvöletében élő új köztársaságokban, így Közép-Európában Szlovákiában és Horvátországban, a Balkánon Szerbiában, Romániában és Bulgáriában, Kelet-Európában pedig mindenekelőtt Ukrajnában és Oroszországban hihetetlen sebességgel kialakult a nemzeti oligarchia. A bennfentes pozícióban lévő, vállalatvezetőből tulajdonossá emelkedő réteg azonnal megtalálta az utat a még állami pénzintézetek irányítói, a helyi önkormányzati vezetők és a mindenkori kormányok felé. A volt pénzügyminiszter, jelenleg a Közép- Európai Egyetem vezető alelnöke és professzora szerint az egymást követő demokratikus kormányok több-kevesebb sikerrel küzdenek a rettenetes kettős örökséggel, a kommunista rendszer és a zsákutcának bizonyult oligarchikus kísérlet együttes hagyatékával. A legfontosabb vívmány az, hogy a késve ugyan, de most már átfogóan végrehajtott liberalizáció megtörte az oligarchikus társadalmi és gazdasági szerkezetet.

Bokros L. Experience and perspectives of financial sector development in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Winkler A, editor. Banking and monetary policy in Eastern Europe: The first ten years. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2002. p. 11-40.
Bokros L. Banking sector reform in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Havrylyshyn O, Nsouli SM, editors. A decade of transition : achievements and challenges. Washington, D.C.: IMF Institute, International Monetary Fund; 2001. p. 194-202.
Bokros L. A perspective on financial sector development in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Bokros L, Fleming A, Votava C, editors. Financial transition in Europe and Central Asia: Challenges of the new decade. Washington, D.C.: World Bank; 2001. p. 13-27.
Bokros L. The transition economies after ten years: comments on Fischer and Sahay. In: Orlowski LT, editor. Transition and growth in post-communist countries: The ten-year experience. Cheltenham, UK: E. Elgar; 2001. p. 48-50. (The Transition Economies after Ten Years: Comments on Fischer and Sahay).

Visegrad twins' diverging path to relative prosperity – Comparing the transition experience of the Czech Republic and Hungary

The author highlights the striking difference between the economic transition of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These two countries, roughly of the same size and same level of development, have traveled on markedly diverging paths toward relative prosperity. After the velvet revolution of 1989, the Czech Republic began to introduce a comprehensive and consistent package of macroeconomic stabilization coupled with voucher privatization. Hungary – not having experienced a revolution, rather a change of the ruling elite – was not ready to make substantial macroeconomic adjustment, but did implement a supply-side shock therapy toward corporate restructuring. The strategy of the. Czech government was widely regarded as successful, while the Hungarian one was considered as flamed. The situation had changed by the mid-1990s, however, when Hungary was forced to undertake comprehensive macro-financial stabilization, which, in turn, has paved the way for high-level, sustainable, and export-led growth since. The Czech Republic paid its Dries for postponing corporate restructuring, but there have been important reforms since 1997 directed at accelerating modernization in both the real and the financial sectors. The pattern of macro versus micro adjustment was, therefore, quite the opposite in the two countries.

Rozdilne cesty visegradskych dvojcat k relativni prosperite: Porovnani procesu transformace v CR a Mad'arsku

The author highlights the striking difference between the economic transition of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These two countries, roughly of the same size and same level of development, have traveled on markedly diverging paths toward relative prosperity. After the velvet revolution of 1989, the Czech Republic began to introduce a comprehensive and consistent package of macroeconomic stabilization coupled with voucher privatization. Hungary--not having experienced a revolution, rather a change of the ruling elite--was not ready to make substantial macroeconomic adjustment, but did implement a supply-side shock therapy toward corporate restructuring. The strategy of the Czech government was widely regarded as successful, while the Hungarian one was considered as flawed. The situation had changed by the mid-1990s, however, when Hungary was forced to undertake comprehensive macrofinancial stabilization, which, in turn, has paved the way for high-level, sustainable, and export-led growth since. The Czech Republic paid its price for postponing corporate restructuring, but there have been important reforms since 1997 directed at accelerating modernization in both the real and the financial sectors. The pattern of macro versus micro adjustment was, therefore, quite the opposite in the two countries.

Financial transition in Europe and Central Asia: challenges of the new decade

Twenty-one papers address a wide range of issues pertaining to financial sector transition in the countries of Europe and Central Asia. Topics include transition economies in the evolving global financial markets; financial integration in Western Europe; a perspective on financial sector development in Central and Eastern Europe; challenges of financial systems development in transition economies; the financial system of Estonia in retrospect and prospect; the Croatian experience with financial sector restructuring; financial sector restructuring in Bulgaria, 1997-2001; financial markets in Hungary; restructuring the Russian banking system; evolution of the banking sector in Central Asia; stock markets in transition economies; emerging stock markets in Central Europe; a Slovenian perspective of emerging capital markets; Czech capital markets; capital market development in the Russian Federation; a comparative analysis of banking transition; financial deepening and the role of financial crises; aspects of banking supervision; finance in the new millennium; the evolving role of the World Bank in European and Central Asian financial sectors; and an IMF perspective on financial policies in transition economies. Bokros, Fleming, and Votava are with the Europe and Central Asia Regional Office of the World Bank. Index.

L. H, Kézdi G, B. N. Wages, employment and incentives in the public sector in Hungary. In: Bokros L, Dethier J-J, editors. Public finance reform during the transition : the experience of Hungary. Washington, D.C.: World Bank; 1998. p. 399-421.
Bokros L. Public finance reform during the transition: the unfinished agenda. In: Bokros L, Dethier J-J, editors. Public finance reform during the transition: The experience of Hungary. Washington, D.C.: World Bank; 1998. p. 535-68.

Public finance reform during the transition: the unfinished agenda

; . 1998

Bokros L. Problems of the Reconstruction of the Banking System in Hungary. In: Drobnig U, editor. Systemtransformation in Mittel- und Osteuropa und ihre Folgen für Banken, Börsen und Kreditsicherheiten. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck; 1998. p. 153-8.

Public finance reform during the transition: The experience of Hungary

Nineteen papers present Hungary's experience with public finance reform during the transition, addressing the economic, social, and institutional dimensions of this process. Papers discuss the general trends and the philosophy of public finance reform; macroeconomic policy in Hungary in the 1990s; fiscal deficit and public debt during the transition; long-term effects of fiscal adjustment; the history of the Hungarian public finance reform; Hungary's public finances in an international context; the Hungarian pension system in transition; the reform of the health care system; reforms in education financing; poverty alleviation, social assistance, and family benefits; labor-market policy reforms and the fiscal constraint; privatization; reforms in public finance management; wages and employment in the public sector; sorting out intergovernmental roles and responsibilities; constitutional rights and the reform of social entitlements; tax-policy reforms; tax administration during the transition; and the unfinished agenda. Bokros is with the Private and Financial Sectors Development Unit of the Europe and Central Asia Region of the World Bank. Dethier is in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit of the Europe and Central Asia Region of the World Bank. Index.

A Budapesti Értéktőzsde alapításának ötödik évfordulója alkalmából

Az 1995. június 23-án elhangzott előadás szerkesztett változata

Bokros L. The next candidates: Hungary. In: Williamson J, editor. Currency convertibility in Eastern Europe. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics; 1994. p. 226-33.
Bokros L. Privatization and banking system in Hungary. In: Privatization in the transition process : recent experiences in Eastern Europe. Genf Budapest, Hungary: United Nations Publications ; KOPINT-DATORG; 1994.
Bokros L. Privatization in Hungary. In: Böhm A, Kreačić V, editors. Privatization in Eastern Europe : current implementation issues, with a collection of privatization laws. Ljubljana: International Center for Public Enterprises in Developing Countries; 1991. p. 57-71.