Publications of Bak, J.M.

MittelalterStudien

Conference publication

Bak JM. Vorwort. In: Jarnut J, Monnet P, Schneidemüller B, Bak JM, editors. Gebrauch und Missbrauch des Mittelalters, 19.-21. Jahrhundert = Uses and abuses of the Middle Ages, 19th-21st century = Usages et mésusages du Moyen Âge du XIXe au XXIe siècle. Vol 17. München: Wilhelm Fink Verlag; 2009. p. 9-13. (MittelalterStudien; vol 17).

Vorwort

Conference publication.

Bak JM. Lists in the Service of Legitimation in Central European Sources. In: Doležalová L, editor. The Charm of a List : From the Sumerians to Computerised Data Processing. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2009. p. 34-45.

Lists in the Service of Legitimation in Central European Sources

Conference publication.

Book review : The Legacy of King Matthias Reconsidered

This article reviews the book “The Legacy of King Matthias Reconsidered edited by Marcus Tanner, András Kubinyi, Péter Farbaky et al.

Bak JM. Holy Lance, Holy Crown, Holy Dexter: Sanctity of Insignia in Medieval East Central Europe. In: Litavrin GG, editor. Anfologion : vlast’, obshchestvo, kultura v slavianskom mire v srednie veka k 70–letiiu Borisa Nikolaevicha Florii. Vol 12. Moscow: Indrik; 2008. p. 56-65. (Slaviane i ikh sosedi; vol 12).
Bak JM. Una eademque nobilitas? : Domini i familiares medu srednjovjekovim plemstvom kraljevine Ugarske. In: Miljan S, Jerković M, editors. Izabrane teme iz hrvatske povijesti : Selected themes in Croatian history : zbornik radova sa znanstvenih kolokvija Dies historiae 2004-2006. Zagreb: Društvo studenata povijesti "Ivan Lučić - Lucius"; 2007. p. 85-96.
Bak JM. Deér József és az országalmák. In: Koszta L, editor. Deér József emlékezete : tanulmányok Deér József (1905-1972) professzor születésének centenáriumára. Vol 2. Szeged: JATEPress; 2006. p. 9-25. (Capitulum; vol 2).

Deér József és az országalmák

József Deér and the orb

Bak JM. Ein – gescheiterter – Versuch Ungarn zum Ständestaat zu verwandeln. In: Kras P, editor. Ecclesia, cultura, potestas : studia z dziejów kultury i społeczeństwa. Kraków: Societas Vistulana; 2006. p. 451-64.
Bak JM. V chem, sostvenno, bylo delo? : Tseli i programmy vengerskoi revoliutsii 1956 goda. In: Rainer JM, editor. Imre Nad premer–ministr vengerskoi revolutsii 1956 goda : Politicheskaia biografiia. Moscow: Logos; 2006. p. 5-19.

V chem, sostvenno, bylo delo? : Tseli i programmy vengerskoi revoliutsii 1956 goda

What was it all about? Aims and programs of the Hungarian revolution of 1956

Bak JM. Sigismund and the Ottoman Advance. In: Pauly M, Reinert F, editors. Sigismund von Luxemburg ein Kaiser in Europa : Tagungsband des internationalen historischen und kunsthistorischen Kongresses in Luxemburg, 8. – 10. Juni 2005. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern; 2006. p. 89-94.

Sigismund and the Ottoman Advance

Conference proceedings.

Political uses of historical comparisons : medieval and modern Hungary

Discusses Hungarian origin myths in medieval historiography and their re-use in modern politics.

Book review : At the Gate of Christendom : Jews, Muslims and ‘Pagans’ in Medieval Hungary

This article reviews the book "At the Gate of Christendom : Jews, Muslims and ‘Pagans’ in Medieval Hungary" by Nóra Berend.

Bak JM. Servitude in the medieval kingdom of Hungary (a sketchy outline). In: Freedman P, Bourin M, editors. Forms of Servitude in Northern and Central Europe: Decline, Resistance, and Expansion. Vol 9. Turnhout: Brepols; 2005. p. 387-400. (Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe; vol 9).

Servitude in the medieval kingdom of Hungary (a sketchy outline)

Discusses in particular the work of Ilona BOLLA (1927-1980), Jenő SZŰCS (1928-1988), and Pál ENGEL (1938-2002)

Monotheistic Kingship: The Medieval Variants

This volume of essays intends to present diverse aspects of monotheistic kingship during the Middle Ages in two general-theoretical articles and a series of case studies on the relationship of religion and rulership. The authors discuss examples of the role of religion based on both textual and iconic evidence in Carolingian, Ottonian and late medieval western Europe; in Byzantium and Armenia; Georgia; Hungary; the Khazar Khanate; Poland, and Rus. Two studies explore the issue in medieval Jewish and Islamic political thought. The editors hope that these special inquiries will engender more comparative studies on the subject.

Gaspar C. The King of Kings and the Holy Men : Royal Authority and Sacred Power in the Early Byzantine World. In: Al-Azmeh A, Bak JM, editors. Monotheistic kingship : the medieval variants. Budapest: CEU Press; 2004. p. 63-88. (Pasts incorporated : CEU studies in the humanities; no 3).
Geréby G. Carl Schmitt and Erik Peterson on the problem of political theology : a footnote to Kantorowicz. In: Al-Azmeh A, Bak JM, editors. Monotheistic Kingship : the medieval variants. Vol 7. Budapest: CEU Press; 2004. p. 31-61. (CEU Medievalia; vol 7).

Carl Schmitt and Erik Peterson on the problem of political theology : a footnote to Kantorowicz

Survey of the debate about the terminology of political theology

Al-Azmeh A. Monotheistic kingship. In: Al-Azmeh A, Bak JM, editors. Monotheistic kingship : the medieval variants. Vol 7. Budapest: CEU Press; 2004. p. 9-29. (CEU Medievalia; vol 7).

Monotheistic kingship

Discusses both Christian and Muslim political thought.

Nagy B, Bak JM. Bergbau (Mittelalter, Ungarn). In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 109-10.
Nagy B, Bak JM. Forint. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 234.
Nagy B, Bak JM. Niederungarische Bergstädte. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 481.
Nagy B, Bak JM. Partium (Partes adnexae). In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 534.
Nagy B, Bak JM. Severiner Banat. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 614.
Bak JM. Hungary and crusading in the fifteenth century. In: Housley N, editor. Crusading in the Fifteenth Century : Message and Impact. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2004. p. 116-27.
Bak JM. Herrschergestalten des mittelalterlichen Königreichs Ungarn in der neueren deutschen Mediävistik. In: Fata M, editor. Das Ungarnbild der deutschen Historiographie. Vol 13. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag; 2004. p. 25-30. (Schriftenreihe des Instituts für donauschwäbische Geschichte und Landeskunde; vol 13).

Herrschergestalten des mittelalterlichen Königreichs Ungarn in der neueren deutschen Mediävistik

Conference publication.

Bak JM. Adel. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 24-5.
Bak JM. Alföld. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 38.
Bak JM. Anjou. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 43-5.
Bak JM. Arpaden. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 59-60.
Bak JM. Ban. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 88-9.
Bak JM. Budapest. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 134-5.
Bak JM. Dorf. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 207-8.
Bak JM. Feudalismus/Ungarn. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 232-3.
Bak JM. Ispán. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 310.
Bak JM. Jobbágyen. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 317-8.
Bak JM. Kisalföld. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 354.
Bak JM. Komitat. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 371-2.
Bak JM. Magnates. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 419.
Bak JM. Magyaren. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 419-20.
Bak JM. Mohács. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 453.
Bak JM. Oppidum. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 488-9.
Bak JM. Országgyülés. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 493.
Bak JM. Pacta conventa. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 510.
Bak JM. Palatin. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 512.
Bak JM. Stände/Ungarn. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 660.
Bak JM. Transdanubien. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 684.
Bak JM. Tripartitum. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 694.
Bak JM. Ungarn. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. p. 710-4.
Bak JM. Westungarn. In: Hösch E, Nehring K, Sundhaussen H, editors. Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. Wien: Böhlau; 2004. 753.
Bak JM. Insignia of Rulership in Medieval East-Central Europe. In: Floriia BN, editor. Reprezentatsiia verkhovnoi vlasti v srednevekovom obshchestve (Tsentralnaia, Vostochnaia i Iugo-Vostochnaia Evropa) : Tezisi XXII konferentsiia pamiati V. D. Koroliuka. Moscow: Indrik; 2004. p. 7-10. (Slaviane i ikh sosedi).

Insignia of Rulership in Medieval East-Central Europe

Conference proceedings.

Legitimization of Rulership in Three Narratives from Twelfth-Century Central Europe

This article attempts to reconstruct the ideas about legitimization of rulership from three narratives of the twelfth century: the Gesta principum Polonorum (traditionally assigned to an anonymous Gallus, ca. 1118), the Gesta Hungarorum of the anonymous notary from ca. 1200, and the early parts (probably written before ca. 1120) of the so-called Hungarian National Chronicle. While the Polish gesta underlines good lordship and acceptance of the rulers abroad, the notary emphasizes noble origin of the dynasty and the consent of the great men of the realm. The Chronicle is ambiguous on the matter: either legiti-mate descent or suitability (idoneitas) of the ruler is presented as essential, depending on when the relevant passages were written. Leadership and victory in war is a central element of legitimization in all three texts. Alone the Chronicle records ecclesiastical sanction virtually for every king, but divine support is presumed for all leaders, even the pagan ones by all the authors. In summary, it is being proposed that the various discourses of legitimization do not necessarily reflect different types of lordship, but rather demonstrate the wide palette of political ideas in twelfth century Central Europe.

Book review : The Realm of St Stephen : A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526

This article reviews the book "The Realm of St Stephen : A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526" by Pál Engel.

Book chapter : Urzustand und Sündenfall in der mittelalterlichen Gesellschafts- und Staatstheorie

This article reviews the book "Urzustand und Sündenfall in der mittelalterlichen Gesellschafts- und Staatstheorie" by Bernhard Töpfer.

Jaritz G. Everyday Life, Representation of Gender, and Historical Image Analysis. In: Bak JM, Szende KG, editors. Ten Years of Medieval Studies at CEU : 1993-2003. Budapest: Central European University; 2003. p. 16-7.
Bak JM. Introduction. In: Rady M, editor. Custom and law in Central Europe. Vol 6. Cambridge: Centre for European Legal Studies; 2003. p. 1-12. (Occasional paper; vol 6).
Bak JM. Politicheskie funktsii sravnitelnoi istorii. In: Chubarian AO, editor. Homo historicus : k 80-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniiu IU. L. Bessmertnogo. Vol 1. Moscow: Nauka; 2003. p. 540-9.

Politicheskie funktsii sravnitelnoi istorii

Policial functions of comparative history in Homo Historicus. Essays in Memory of Yuri Bessmertny on the 80th Anniversary of His Birth.

Bak JM. Einige Gedanken zur Lage der Mediävistik in Ostmittteleuropa. In: Goetz H-V, Jarnut J, editors. Mediävistik im 21. Jahrhundert : Stand und Perspektiven der internationalen und interdisziplinären Mittelalterforschung. Vol 1. München: Fink; 2003. p. 55-9. (MittelalterStudien; vol 1).
Bak JM. Königreich Ungarn : Staatsstrukturen und Rolle in Ostmitteleuropa im 14.–16. Jahrhundert. In: Dygo M, Gawlas S, Grala H, editors. Ostmitteleuropa im 14.-17. Jahrhundert : eine Region oder Region der Regionen? Vol 3. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo DiG; 2003. p. 41-50. (Colloquia; vol 3).
Bak JM. Insignii. In: Gurevich IAA, editor. Slovar srednevekovoi kultury. Moscow: Rosspen; 2003. p. 189-95.

Insignii

Insignia

Bak JM, Lukin P. Consensus and assemblies in early medieval central and eastern Europe. In: Barnswell PS, Mostert M, editors. Political Assemblies in the Earlier Middle Ages. Vol 7. Turnhout: Brepols; 2003. p. 95-113. (Studies in the Early Middle Ages; vol 7).

Consensus and assemblies in early medieval central and eastern Europe

Discusses references to assemblies and consensus in the laws of St. Stephen and St. Ladislas (Hungary), in the description of a legal enactment of Duke Břetislav from Bohemia (as reported by Cosmas of Prague), and in the Gesta principum Polonorum as well as discussing general meetings of inhabitants of early Russian towns (veche).

Book review : A magyar középkor telefonkönyve

Tiszteletkör Engel Pálról includes four reviews, one of them is written by Bak J.M.This article reviews the book "The Realm of St. Stephen. A History of Medieval Hingary, 895-1526" by Pál Engel.

Bak JM. A few additional thoughts after reading the book. In: Piskorski JM, editor. Historiographical Approaches to Medieval Colonization of East Central Europe : A Comparative Analysis against the Background of Other European Inter-Ethnic Colonization Processes in the Middle Ages. Vol 611. Boulder: East European Monographs; 2002. p. 383-6. (East European Monographs; vol 611).
Bak JM. Új könyvek, új viták az ezredik év Közép-Európájáról. In: Veszprémy L, editor. Szent István és az államalapítás. Budapest: Osiris; 2002. p. 349-58. (Nemzet és emlékezet).

Új könyvek, új viták az ezredik év Közép-Európájáról

New debates, new books on Central Europe around 1000 A.D.

Studien zum Kleinadel Ostmitteluropas im Mittelalter : Proben aus der Werkstatt junger Historiker

Preface to research dossier “Nobility in Medieval Central Europe : A Comparative Approach” containing 10 papers edited by J.M. Bak, written by participants of a research project 1996–99, led by J.M. Bak and supported by CEU Research Grant.(pp. 135–248)

Book review : Rainer M. János : Nagy Imre

This article reviews the book "Nagy Imre" by Rainer M. János.

Book review : The Realm of St. Stephen

This article reviews the book "The realm of St. Stephen" by Pál Engel.

Issues and resources for the study of medieval Central and Eastern Europe : reports and articles

CARA-CEU Summer Institute, 2000, Budapest-Cracow-Prague"The present booklet constitutes a partial harvest of the Summer University / Summer Institute organised by the Central European University. Dept. of Medieval Studies Budapest and the Medieval Academy of America. Committee on Centers and Regional Associations (CARA) in cooperation with the Centre for Medieval Studies (Prague) in July-August 2000" – preface.Contents: Reports: short final reports of the participants in their native language (in Russian, Lithuanian, Polish, Georgian etc.) -- Articles (in English; 1 essay in French) -- Research resources for medievalists in Hungary (bibliography).

Bak JM. Probleme einer vergleichenden Betrachtung mittelalterlicher Eliten in Ostmitteleuropa. In: Borgolte M, editor. Das europäische Mittelalter im Spannungsbogen des Vergleichs : zwanzig internationale Beiträge zu Praxis, Problemen und Perspektiven der historischen Komparatistik. Vol 1. Berlin: Akademie Verlag; 2001. p. 49-64. (Europa im Mittelalter; vol 1).
Bak JM. Magyar királyi jelvények a középkorban. In: Hausner G, Kincses MK, Veszprémy L, editors. Kard és koszorú : ezer év magyar uralmi és katonai jelképei. Vol 4. Budapest: Hadtörténeti Múzeum; 2001. p. 17-24. (A hadtörténeti múzeum értesítője/Acta Musei Militaris in Hungaria; vol 4).

Magyar királyi jelvények a középkorban

Hungarian royal insignia in the Middle Ages.Surveys the current state of research on the age and nature of the Hungarian royal insignia, notably with questions regarding the orb and the casula, the later coronation mantle.

Schlußwort : Aufhebbare Schlagbäume zwischen Disziplinen?

Historische Zeitschrift, Beiheft 32 : Unaufhebbare Pluralität der Kulturen?

Medieval narrative sources : a chronological guide. Bak JM, Grzesik R, Jurković I, editors. Budapest: Central European University Dept. of Medieval Studies; 2000.
Bak JM. Signs of conversion in Central European laws. In: Armstrong G, Wood IN, editors. Christianizing Peoples and Converting Individuals. Vol 7. Turnhout: Brepols; 2000. p. 115-24. (International Medieval Research; vol 7).
Bak JM. Introduction. In: Vavřínek V, editor. Current state and further perspectives of Slavonic studies in Central Europe : proceedings of the international workshop, Prague 11th-12th XI 1998. Prague: CEU Euroslavica; 2000.
Bak JM. Magicheskie i dinasticheskie legitimatsii. In: Dubrovskii IV, Obolenskaia SV, Paramonova MIU, editors. Drugie srednie veka : k 75-letiiu A. IA. Gurevicha : sbornik statei. Moscow: Universitetskaia kniga; 2000. pp. p. 165-73.

Magicheskie i dinasticheskie legitimatsii

Magic and dynastic legitimization

Bak JM. La noblesse en Europe centrale au moyen âge et au début de l’époque moderne. In: Coulet N, Matz JM, editors. La noblesse dans les territoires angevins à la fin du moyen âge : actes du colloque international organisé par l’Université d’Angers. Vol 275. Rome: École française de Rome; 2000. p. 149-58. (Collection de l'École française de Rome; vol 275).
Bak JM. National synods in Hungary in the Arpad age : with special reference to the Synodus Budensis of 1279. In: Kras P, Polak W, editors. Christianity in East Central Europe, 2 : Late Middle Ages : La Chretienté en Europe du Centre-Est. Le Bas Moyen Age. Proceedings of the Commission Internationale d'Histoire Eccléstiastique Comparée, Lublin 1996. Lublin: Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej; 1999. p. 33-9.
Bak JM. Die Mediävisierung der Politik im Ungarn des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. In: Bock P, Wolfrum E, editors. Umkämpfte Vergangenheit: Geschichtsbilder, Erinnerung und Vergangenheitspolitik im internationalen Vergleich. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 1999. p. 103-13. (Sammlung Vandenhoeck).
Bak JM. Preface. In: Fügedi E, Karbic D, editors. The Elefánthy : The Hungarian Nobleman and His Kindred. Budapest: CEU Press; 1998. p. 1-4.
Bak JM. Hungary: Crown and Estates. In: Allamand C, editor. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Vol 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1998. p. 707-26.
Bak JM. Percy Ernst Schramm (1895-1970) P.E. Schrammról. In: Kalmár J, editor. Miscellanea fontium historiae Europae : Emlékkönyv H. Balázs Éva történészprofesszor 80. születésnapjára. Budapest: ELTE Bölcsészettudományi Kar; 1997. p. 421-31.

Percy Ernst Schramm (1895-1970) P.E. Schrammról

Publishes the unedited text of an interview with the medievalist P.E. Schramm, made in 1970, with a historiographical introduction.

Bak JM. Queens as scapegoats in medieval Hungary. In: Duggan AJ, editor. Queens and queenship in medieval Europe : proceedings of a conference held at King's College London, April 1995. Woodbridge: Boydell Press; 1997.

Book review : Höfische Kultur in Südost-Europa

This article reviews the book "Höfische Kultur in Südost-Europa" edited by Reinhard Lauer and Hans Georg Maier (Göttingen, 1994).

Book review : Where to look up ‘horka’?

This article reviews Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század) edited by Gy. Kristó (Budapest: Akadémiai, 1994)

Book review : Höfische Kultur in Südosteuropa : Bericht der Kolloquien der Südosteuropa-Komission 1988 bis 1990

This article reviews the book Höfische Kultur in Südosteuropa : Bericht der Kolloquien der Südosteuropa-Komission 1988 bis 1990 edited by R. Lauer und H. G. Majer (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: 1994).

Bak JM. Szimbólum -- jel -- intézmény : a középkor szimbólumai: rendszerezési kísérlet. In: Kapitány Á, Kapitány G, editors. Jelbeszéd az életünk : a szimbolizáció története és kutatásának módszerei. Budapest: Osiris-Századvég; 1995. p. 361-71.

Szimbólum -- jel -- intézmény : a középkor szimbólumai: rendszerezési kísérlet

Symbol -- sign -- institution (symbols of the Middle Ages: an attempt at systematisation).Discusses the origin of symbols and their functions, the forms and types of signs, with several medieval examples (e.g. royal/imperial crowns).

Bak JM. Géza. In: Buchberger M, Kasper W, Baumgartner K, editors. Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche. Vol 4. Freiburg: Herder; 1995. 635.
Bak JM. Gisela. In: Buchberger M, Kasper W, Baumgartner K, editors. Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche. Vol 4. Freiburg: Herder; 1995. 658.
Bak JM. Néhány kérdés a többnyelvűségről a középkori magyar társadalomban. In: Fehér F, Kardos A, Radnóti S, editors. Majdnem nem lehet másként : Tanulmányok Vajda Mihály 60. születésnapjára. Budapest: Cserépfalvi; 1995. p. 132-5.

Néhány kérdés a többnyelvűségről a középkori magyar társadalomban

Some questions about multilingualism in medieval Hungarian society

Bak JM. Percy Ernst Schramm (1894-1970). In: Damico H, Zavadil JB, editors. Medieval Scholarship : Biographical Studies on the Formation of a Discipline, 1: History. Vol 1350. New York: Garland Publishing; 1995. p. 247-62. (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities; vol 1350).

Percy Ernst Schramm (1894-1970)

Discusses the life and work of this scholar of the medieval state and founder of systematic research into the iconography of rulership.