Publications of Duman, A.
Impact of Trade Unions on Wage Inequality in Turkey
This paper systematically evaluates patterns of change in socio-economic models in Hungary and Slovakia, highlighting the role of state in the process. While the cases share general similarities in their type of capitalism, a closer overview of institutional domains reveals that important differences exist in critical junctures, character of change and the role of key actors. In terms of the overall reform paths, Slovakian path especially since the late 1990s stands out to be more coherent and is overwhelmingly in a liberal direction, while Hungarian reforms appear less radical and encompass liberal elements but active state involvement in most institutional domains as well. The key difference in industrial policy that we select as exemplary institutional domain is that Hungary adopted a more comprehensive and vertical industrial support geared towards upgrading and introduced relatively early schemes aimed at the development of domestic SME sector. The Slovakian state was initially more subject to pressures from the local business groups and only after the turning point in 1998 adopted foreigners-favored approach and developed its industry more through regulation than a direct intervention, neglecting any attempt to nurture domestic bourgeoisie.
Protecting the Unemployed in Hungary
Hungarian labour market processes were dominated by the economic transition for most of the 1990s. The chapter first describes the labour market institutions and policies established in response to emerging unemployment in the early 1990s and then moves on to examine tendencies towards the homogenization of insured and means-tested unemployment benefits. The two schemes are found to have become similar in terms of benefit rates, mostly due to reductions in the amount of unemployment insurance, but not in terms of entitlement conditions and administration. Further integration has often featured in policy debates, but not in the actual design and implementation of employment policy. Rather than responding to structural changes or distortions in the labour market, policymaking has been largely dictated by the politically determined cycle of overspending and fiscal squeeze, and more specific short-term political aims, such as appeasing public discontent by regulating the ‘idle poor’.
Employee Welfare and Restructuring in Public Sectors: Evidence from Poland and Serbia
Labour in Central-Eastern Europe is widely regarded as a uniformly weak actor. We challenge this view, and explore the conditions under which CEE labour can play an active role in the welfare reform process. We draw on evidence from education and health care in Poland and Serbia, and show that public sector unions have largely retained their ability to prevent major restructuring and to defend employment-related privileges of their constituencies. The unions’ resilience is explained by the fact that the public sector in these countries remains sheltered from competitive pressures by delayed privatization, and by the extensive structural and associational power enjoyed by public sector employees.
Reconciliation of Work and Family Life in Hungary between 1990 and 2006
The paper analyses the ‘Europeanization’ of policies concerning the reconciliation of work and family life in Hungary between 1998 and 2005. It looks at how politicians – in government or in the opposition – framed European requirements and/or standards and how they used references to European processes in their arguments. The paper distinguished three periods of Europeanization. In the first period – in which the first comprehensive Family Support Act was adopted – basically no reference was made to the European Union. Accordingly, this Act – its goal being to protect the institution of the family to ensure demographic growth – did not prioritize reconciliation and women’ employment at all and was criticized of not being in line with European principles. The second period before 2004 was the period of legal harmonization. Therefore, reconciliation-related acts (e.g. ontelework) were mainly adopted as an answer to European expectations. Finally, in the third period after the 2004 accession, the reconciliation of work and family life became an explicit goal of the government, usually with references made to European processes and European principles. In this period, MPs started using the jargon of the EU. Furthermore, the availability of European funding was an important trigger of reconciliation-related reforms.
Female Education Inequality in Turkey: factors affecting girls’ schooling decisions
Education remains to be an important determinant of economic and social opportunities for individuals. However, within group inequalities for educational elements are not studied broadly. This paper seeks to inspect the reasons of higher inequality among females in terms of schooling distribution. Our results suggest that occupation of the household head, size and the composition of the family, and education of the parents have a significant impact on the schooling decision for girls. The paper will contribute to the literature in a twofold manner. First, it provides empirical evidence of schooling distribution in Turkey. Second, it investigates the factors that disproportionately affect schooling decisions for girls.
Female Education Inequality in Turkey : factors affecting girls’ schooling
This article was presented at the Spring Meeting of Young Economists, April 23-25, 2009, Istanbul.
Revitalization of the Trade Union Movement : examples from Poland and Serbia in Automobile and Public Sectors
This article was presented at the 7th ESPAnet conference, Urbino, 17-19 September 2009.
Preferences for unemployment insurance and labor-market risks : over-time developments in Germany and the United States
This article examines the relationship between labor-market risks and demand for social insurance. It looks at the over-time variations in preferences for unemployment insurance in Germany and the United States, and delineates the links with these and one's position in the labor market. The results suggest that rather than the type of human capital investment, occupational unemployment rate is explanatory for the demand for social insurance, along with income. Our analysis challenges the widespread association, in the literature, between higher specificity and higher social spending.
Obrazovanje i nejednakost dohotka u Turskoj : je li školovanje važno?
Education and Income Inequality in Turkey : Does Schooling Matter?
Unemployment Compensation in Sweden, Germany and United Kingdom : is there a tendency towards marketisation?
This article was presented at the ESPAnet Young Researchers Workshop, April 1-2 2005, University of Bath.