Publications of Bozóki, A.

Az alkotmányos forradalom éve : 1989

The Year of Constitutional Revolution

Bozóki A. Politikai polgárosodás és elitváltó redikalizmus : a Fidesz-MPP vezette kormány. In: Pesti S, Szabó M, editors. "Jöjj el szabadság!" : Bihari Mihály egyetemi tanár 60. születésnapjára készült ünneplő kötet. Vol 14. Budapest: Rejtjel; 2003. p. 345-79. (Rejtjel politológia könyvek; vol 14).
Bozóki A. 1989 : az alkotmányos forradalom éve. In: Varga T, editor. A rendszerváltozás dokumentumfilmjei. Budapest: Magyar Dokumentumfilmrendezők Egyesülete; 2003. p. 7-33.
Bozóki A. Theoretical Interpretations of Elite Change in East Central Europe. In: Dogan M, editor. Elite Configurations at the Apex of Power. Vol 85. Leiden: Brill; 2003. p. 215-48. (International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology; vol 85).
Bozóki A. Az elitváltás elméleti értelmezései : kelet-közép-európai megközelítések. In: Bárdi N, Fedinec C, editors. Etnopolitika : A közösségi, magán- és nemzetközi érdekek viszonyrendszere Közép-Európában. 4th ed. Budapest: Teleki László Alapítvány; 2003. p. 9-42.
Bozóki A. Politikai ideológiák. In: Gallai S, Török G, editors. Politika és politikatudomány. Budapest: Aula Kiadó; 2003. p. 97-145.

Politikai ideológiák

Political Ideologies

Theoretical Interpretations of Elite Change in East Central Europe

Elite theory enjoyed a remarkable revival in Central & Eastern Europe, & also in international social science research, during the 1990s. Many researchers coming from different schools of thought turned to the analysis of rapid political & social changes & ended up doing centered research. Since democratic transition & elite transformation seemed to be parallel processes, it was understandable that sociologists & political scientists of the region started to use elite theory. The idea of "third wave" of democratization advanced a reduced, more synthetic, "exportable" understanding of democracy in the political science literature. The main focus of social sciences shifted from structures to actors, from path dependency to institutional choices. Transitions, roundtable negotiations, institution-building, constitution-making, compromise-seeking, pact-making, pact-breaking, strategic choices -- all of these underlined the importance of elites & research on them. Elite settlements were seen as alternatives of social revolution. According to a widely shared view, democratic institutions came into existence through negotiations & compromises among political elites calculating their own interests & desires. The elite settlement approach was then followed by some important contributions in transitology which described the process of regime change largely as "elite games." By offering a systematic overview of the theoretical interpretations of elite change from New Class theory to recent theorizing of elite change (conversion of capital, reproduction, circulation, political capitalism, technocratic continuity, three elites & the like), the paper also gives an account of the state of the arts in elite studies in different new democracies of Central & Eastern Europe. 4 Tables, 2 Figures, 188 References. Adapted from the source document.

Az MSZP második visszatérése és a rendszerváltás értelmezései

The second return of the MSZP and the interpretations of regime change

A rendszerváltás tartalma és a demokrácia feladatai

The Content of Regime Change and the Tasks of Democracy

Party-System and Public Discourse: The Hungarian Semi-Loyal Parties

The article provides an analysis of semi-loyal par ties based on the discussion of Hungarian politics. The following issue is being addressed: What is the situation with those semi-loyal parties that appear to be fully participating in democracy? It is argued, that despite being marginalized politically, semiloyal parties might exercise a significant influence over public discourse.

Az elitváltás elméleti értelmezései : kelet-közép-európai megközelítések

Elite theory enjoyed a remarkable revival in East Central Europe. Many researchers coming from different schools of thought – Marxist class analysis,Weberian sociology, functionalist social stratification research, New Class theory, and the like – turned to the analysis of rapid political and social changes and ended up doing elite centered research. One of the most important characteristics of contemporary elite research is the focus on elite transformation because nowadays elite research is primarily about change. The study investigates some major paradigms in elite theory (Daniel Bell, Kevin Phillips, Alvin Gouldner, Konrád and Szelényi, Irvin Kristol) and discusses contemporary general statements in detail (Burton and Higley, Iván Szelényi, Higley and Lengyel, Higley and Pakulski). Finally, it offers a wide overview on recent explanations which proved to be relevant in understanding elite change in East Central Europe. Those theories include the ideas of 1. ’Grand Coalition’ (Elemér Hankiss), 2. political capitalism (Jadwiga Staniszkis), 3. elite network state (Anton Steen), 4. technocratic continuity (Erzsébet Szalai), 5. institution-building elites (Kaminski and Kurczewska), and finally 6.the proposition of ’three elites’ (Jacek Wasilewski). It predicts that, as reflection to the caracteristics of the period of democratic consolidation, comprehensive elite research will combine formal, positional analysis and informal, elite network approach as well.

Success Stories : Lessons of Democratization in Central Europe

The article analyzes the meaning and modes of these revolutionary changes of 1989 by focusing on the nature of the roundtable talks and their impact on the subsequent democratic regime.The fact that countries of Central Europe became new democracies is not attributable to a single factor only. There are numerous internal and external causes that brought about the collapse of the old regime in this particular way, in this particular time. As far as the internal causes are concerned, one must stress 1. the impact of previous revolutions and reform attempts, 2. the diminishing performance of the economy, 3. the exhaustion of the social reserves of the regime, 4. the disintegration of the ideology, and 5. the willingness to compromise on the part of the new and the old elite. Among the most important external factors, one must number 1. the defeat in the Cold War, 2. the crippling consequences of the arms race, 3. the social and ethnic conflicts that made the Eastern Bloc bursting at the seams, 4. the coordinated, evolutionist strategies of the democratic opposition in a number of these countries, 5. the corresponding, human rights-based foreign policies of the Western countries initiated buys President Carter in the 1970s, and finally, 6. the rise to the top of the Soviet party hierarchy of First Secretary Gorbachev who introduced a style of politics open to compromise.

Book review : Central European Ways to Democracy : Studies in Public Policy

Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia are by most international standards liberal democracies. But these democracies still are relatively poor compared to West European countries. By examining the success of democratization in unfavourable economic conditions the legacy of the transition process as well as the legacies of pre-communist and communist regimes are shown. The Central European pattern of transition can be summarized by two ideas: non-violence and negotiation. The transition socialized political and social actors to value peace and self-limited political behavior: both experiences proved useful in later stages of democratization too. Among pre-communist legacies institution-building has been emphasized in the revolutionary tradition. People learned that breaking with the past through rebellion was not enough; short term victories can easily be turned to defeats. Only building a new institutional order can guarantee the longer term success of revolutionary change. Among many negative ones, the few positive legacies of communism -- social mobilization, industrialization, high literacy rate, urbanization, and a curious form of female emancipation -- created some favorable social requisites for democratic political change.

Bozóki A. Central European ways to democracy. Glasgow: Centre for the Study of Public Policy (University of Strathclyde); 2003.

Book review : Vitatkozó diktatúra

This article reviews the book of Ervin Csizmadia: Diskurzus és diktatúra.

Bozóki A. The Hungarian Socialists : Technocratic Modernizationism or New Social Democracy? In: Bozóki A, Ishiyama JT, editors. Communist Successor Parties of Central and Eastern Europe. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe; 2002. p. 89-115.
Bozóki A. Modernisation and Nationalism : Pathways to Power for ex-Communists in Europe, and the Hungarian Case. In: Sörensen LB, Eliason LC, editors. Fascism, Liberalism, and Social Democracy in Central Europe : Past and Present. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press; 2002. p. 200-47.
Bozóki A. Politikai közösség vagy kulturális közösség? : az Orbán-kormány demokrácia-felfogása. In: Sükösd M, Vásárhelyi M, editors. Hol a határ? : kampánystratégiák és kampányetika, 2002. Budapest: Élet és Irodalom; 2002. p. 161-85.

Politikai közösség vagy kulturális közösség? : az Orbán-kormány demokrácia-felfogása

Political or Cultural Community? The Orbán Cabinet’s Understanding of Democracy

Bozóki A. Democratic Design and ’Return to Europe : Discourses of the Roundtable Talks of 1989. In: Bianchini S, Schöpflin G, Shoup P, editors. Post-Communist Transition as a European Problem. Vol 18. Ravenna: Longo; 2002. p. 31-57. (Collana di studi sui Balcani e l'Europa Centro-Orientale; vol 18).
Bozóki A. Hungary and the New Central Europe in the Context of European Integration. In: Dartan M, Nas C, editors. The European Union enlargement process and Turkey. Vol 691. Istanbul: Marmara University Press; 2002. p. 175-209. (Marmara University publication; vol 691).
Bozóki A. The Hungarian Roundtable Talks of 1989 in a Central European Comparison. In: Congdon LW, Király BK, editors. The Ideas of the Hungarian Revolution : Suppressed and Victorious 1956-1999. Vol 619. Boulder, CO: Social Science Monographs; 2002. p. 233-66. (East European monographs; vol 619).
Bozóki A. Introduction : The Significance of the Roundtable Talks. In: The Roundtable Talks of 1989 : The Genesis of Hungarian Democracy. Budapest: CEU Press; 2002. p. 15-31.
Bozóki A. The Making of a Political Elite : The Participants of the Opposition Roundtable. In: The Roundtable Talks of 1989 : The Genesis of Hungarian Democracy. Budapest: CEU Press; 2002. p. 71-105.
Bozóki A, Ishiyama JT. Introduction and Theoretical Framework. In: Communist Successor Parties of Central and Eastern Europe. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe; 2002. p. 3-13.

Research on Political Elites in East Central Europe

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Politikai fordulat Magyarországon

Political Turn in Hungary

Pártrendszer és közbeszéd: a félig lojális pártok

Party System and Political Discurse: The Semi-Loyal Parties

Bozóki A. Az 1989-es kerekasztal-tárgyalások kelet-közép-európai összehasonlításban. In: Király BK, Congdon LW, editors. A magyar forradalom eszméi : eltiprásuk és győzelmük (1956-1999). Budapest: Atlanti Kiadó; 2001. p. 197-224.

Az 1989-es kerekasztal-tárgyalások kelet-közép-európai összehasonlításban

The Roundtable Talks of 1989 in East Central European Comparison

Bozóki A. Fiatal demokraták. In: Petőcz G, editor. Csak a narancs volt. Budapest: Irodalom Kft; 2001. p. 7-28.

Fiatal demokraták

Young Democrats

Adaptation and Change : Characterizing the Survival Strategies of the Communist Successor Parties

Examines the adaptation strategies of several communist successor parties from 1991 to 2001. Characterization of the communist parties in terms of the kinds of adaptation strategies they have adopted since the collapse of communism; Review of the commonly cited factors which affect party identity change; Assessment of the extent in which their party programs had changed from the initial versions to the programs which appeared in the second generation elections.

Bozóki A. A kerekasztal-tárgyalások és a rendszerváltozás. In: A rendszerváltás forgatókönyve : kerekasztal-tárgyalások 1989-ben : alkotmányos forradalom : tanulmányok. Vol 7. Budapest: Új Mandátum; 2000. p. 21-53. (A rendszerváltás forgatókönyve; vol 7).

A kerekasztal-tárgyalások és a rendszerváltozás

The Roundtable Talks and the Regime Change

Bozóki A. Életút és politika : a kerekasztal-tárgyalások résztvevői. In: A rendszerváltás forgatókönyve : kerekasztal-tárgyalások 1989-ben : alkotmányos forradalom : tanulmányok. Vol 7. Budapest: Új Mandátum; 2000. p. 344-419. (A rendszerváltás forgatókönyve; vol 7).

Életút és politika : a kerekasztal-tárgyalások résztvevői

Biography and Politics : The Participants of the Roundtable Talks

Bozóki A. A magyar átmenet összehasonlító nézőpontból. In: Fokasz N, Örkény A, editors. Magyarország társadalomtörténete, 1945-1989. Vol 2. Budapest: Új Mandátum; 2000. p. 457-76.

A magyar átmenet összehasonlító nézőpontból

The Hungarian Transition from a Comparative View

Dimitrijevic N. Words and death : Serbian nationalist intellectuals. In: Bozóki A, editor. Intellectuals and politics in Central Europe. Budapest: CEU Press; 1999. p. 119-48.
Bozóki A. The Idea of Federalism and the Perception of Geopolitics. In: Skenderovic N, Podunavac M, editors. Civil Society in the Countries in Transition : Comparative Analysis and Practice. Subotica: Center for Agency of Local Democracy; 1999. p. 379-403.

The Idea of Federalism and the Perception of Geopolitics

Proceedings of the International Conference on Civil Society in the Countries in Transition: Comparative Analysis and Practice, held in Subotica, Yugoslavia, May 28-31, 1997.

Bozóki A. Democracy in Hungary, 1990-1997. In: Kaldor M, Vejvoda I, editors. Democratization in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Pinter Publishers; 1999. p. 105-20.
Bozóki A. The Ideology of Modernization : The Day After for the Socialists. In: Tóka G, Enyedi Z, editors. Elections to the Hungarian National Assembly 1994. Berlin: Sigma; 1999. p. 198-223. (Founding elections in Eastern Europe).
Bozóki A. Introduction. In: Intellectuals and Politics in Central Europe. Budapest: CEU Press; 1999. p. 1-15.
Bozóki A. The Rhetoric of Action : The Language of the Regime Change in Hungary. In: Intellectuals and Politics in Central Europe. Budapest: CEU Press; 1999. p. 263-83.

A polgári radikális kormány

The Civic Radical Government

Magyar anarchizmus : a magyarországi anarchizmus történeti dokumentumaiból

Anarchism in Hungary: The Historical Documents of Hungarian Anarchism

Aczél és Pozsgay

György Aczél and Imre Pozsgay

Regionalizmus, államközi verseny és geopolitika : az európai integráció és Közép-Európa

Regionalism, Competition and Geopolitics: The European Integration and Central Europe

Book review : Az én Magyarországom

This article reviews the book by Péter Kende: Az én Magyarországom

Bozóki A. The Idea of Federalism and the Perception of Geopolitics : The European Integration and Central Europe. In: Koprivnik S, Luksic I, Zajc D, editors. Conflicts and Consensus : Pluralism and Neocorporatism in New and Old Democracies. Ljubljana: Slovenian Political Science Association; 1997. p. 147-67.

The Idea of Federalism and the Perception of Geopolitics : The European Integration and Central Europe

Conferenced proceedigs of the Third regional conference of the Central European Political Science Associations, Bled, November 22-23 1996.

Bozóki A. Ignotus Pál és kora. In: Vissza az értelemhez / Ignotus Pál. Budapest: Hatodik Síp Alapítvány; Új Mandátum; 1997. p. 287-311.

Ignotus Pál és kora

Paul Ignotus and His Age

A demokrácia feltételei és minősége

The Conditions and Quality of Democracy

Rómeó Európája : Interjú Timothy Garton Ash-sel

Romeo’s Europe. An Interview with Timothy Garton Ash

The ideology of modernization and the policy of materialism : The day after for the socialists

Post-communist parties in East-Central Europe can be divided by their policies of modernization or nationalism. Where the political of nationalism had been occupied by parties with a non-communist past, the new socialists returning to power had no option other than to follow a rather undefined policy of modernization which embraces a sort of pro-capitalist policy 'with a human face'. The clearest example of this policy is the governing Hungarian Socialist Party, which returned to power in 1994 and reached a consolidation of democracy by using the ideology of non-ideological modernization. This was not far from the technocratic orientation of reform communists in the late 1980s so, paradoxically, this type of consolidation has the aura of restoration. The different explanations for the return of former communists offer alternative answers to the change in voters' behaviour as well. Although the policies of 'modernizing socialists' can negatively influence the quality of democracy, in general – unlike the case of 'nationalizing socialists' – it does not mean a return to the undemocratic past.

Pártok, eszmék stratégiák

Political Parties, Their Ideas and Strategies in Hungary

Mozgalmi-értelmiségi politika a rendszerváltás után : A Demokratikus Charta

The Politics of Movement Intellectuals After the Regime Change : The Democratic Charter

Book review : Towards an Explanation of 1989

This article reviews the book by Rudolf L. Tőkés: Hungary’s Negotiated Revolution.

Book review : A kialkudott szabadság

This book reviews the book by Rudolf L. Tőkés: Hungary’s Negotiated Revolution.

Bozóki A. The Charter Movement in Hungary. In: Lawrence P, Döbler M, editors. Knowledge and Power : The Changing Role of European Intellectuals. Aldershot: Avebury; 1996. p. 88-120. (Perspectives on Europe).
Bozóki A. Building Democracy : Institutional Transformation in Hungary. In: Nagel S, Crotty W, Scarritt J, editors. Political Reform and Developing Nations. Vol 2. Greenwich CT: JAI Press; 1996. p. 237-56. (Policy studies and developing nations; vol 2).
Bozóki A, Lomax B. The Revenge of History. The Portuguese, Spanish and Hungarian Transitions : Some Comparisons. In: Pridham G, Lewis PG, editors. Stabilising fragile democracies : comparing new party systems in Southern and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge; 1996. p. 186-205.

A Demokratikus Charta története

The History of the Democratic Charter , April 1996. .

Cenzúra és sajtó Magyarországon az 1980-as években

Censorship and the Press in Hungary in the 1980s

East European monographs. Vol 84. Király B, Bozóki A, editors. Boulder, CO: Social Science Monographs; 1995.
Bozóki A. Átiratok. Vol 12. Szombathely: Savaria University Press; 1995.
Tóka G. Parties and their voters in 1990 and 1994. In: Király BK, Bozóki A, editors. Lawful Revolution in Hungary, 1989-94. Boulder, CO: Social Science Monographs; 1995. p. 131-57.
Bozóki A. Interjú Krassó Györggyel. In: Csizmadia E, editor. A magyar demokratikus ellenzék története. Vol 3. Budapest: T-Twins Kiadó; 1995. p. 49-70.

Interjú Krassó Györggyel

An Interview with György Krassó

Bozóki A. Party Formation and Constitutional Change in Hungary. In: Cox T, Furlong A, editors. Hungary : The Politics of Transition. London: Frank Cass; 1995. p. 35-55.
Bozóki A. Hungary’s Road to Systemic Change : The Opposition Roundtable. In: Király BK, Bozóki A, editors. Lawful Revolution in Hungary, 1989-94. Vol 84. Boulder, CO: Social Science Monographs; 1995. p. 61-92. (Atlantic studies on society in change; vol 84).

Visszatérés a modernizáláshoz? : Utódpártok Kelet-Közép-Európában

Back to Modernization? Ex-Communist Political Parties in East Central Europe