Publications of Bozóki, A.

Bozóki A, Ádám Z. The God of Hungarians: Religion and Right-wing Populism in Hungary. In: Saving the People: How Populists Hijack Religion. New York: Oxford University Press; 2016. p. 129-47.
Bozóki A. Zöld utak. In: Petőcz G, editor. Béke sose volt. Budapest: Aura; 2014. p. 205-34.
Bozóki A. Populism as Elite Discourse in Hungary. In: Political Elites in Old and New Democracies. Kaliningrad: Emmanuel Kant Baltic Federal University Press; 2012. p. 345-58.
Bozóki A, Simon E. Hungary since 1989. In: Ramet SR, editor. Central and southeast European politics since 1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010. p. 204-32.
Bozóki A. A Fidesz radikális, liberális, alternatív szervezet [Fidesz as Radical, Liberal, and Alternative Organization]. In: Bába I, editor. Felgyorsult történelem. [Accelerated History]. Budapest: Demokratikus Átalakulásért Intézet; 2010. p. 357-69.
Bozóki A. The deficit of legitimacy : theorizing East Central European communism. In: Frank R, editor. Driving forces of socialist transformation : North Korea and the experience of Europe and East Asia. Wien: Praesens; 2009. p. 113-39.
Bozóki A. A stabilitás illúziója a válságot stabilizálja. In: Hankiss E, Heltai P, editors. Münchhausen báró kerestetik : mit kezdjünk a nagy magyar válsággal? Vol 3. Budapest: Médiavilág Kft.; 2009. p. 50-61. (Új reformkor sorozat; vol 3).

A stabilitás illúziója a válságot stabilizálja

The Illusion of Stability Stabilizes the Crisis

Bozóki A. Anarchism, Hungary. In: Ness I, editor. The international encyclopedia of revolution and protest : 1500 to the present. Malden, MA: Blackwell; 2009. p. 127-9.

Anarchism, Hungary

Oxford: Blackwell, 127-129.

Bozóki A. An Interview with András Bozóki. In: Wasilewska O, editor. Europe Divided: Then and Now. Warsaw: Stefan Batory Foundation; 2009. p. 10-3.
Bozóki A. Batthyány, Ervin. In: Ness I, editor. International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest. Oxford: Blackwell; 2009.
Bozóki A. Kultúra és esélyegyenlőség. In: Csefkó F, Horváth C, editors. A demokrácia deficitje avagy A deficites hatalomgyakorlás. Pécs: PTE ÁJK; 2008. p. 436-48.

Kultúra és esélyegyenlőség

Conference proceedings. Pécs, October 2007.

Consolidation or Second Revolution? : The Emergence of the New Right in Hungary

The political turn of 1998 in post-transition Hungary marked the beginning of a new era: the rise of the New Right. Fidesz, which used to be a liberal party during the regime change of 1989, later changed its political stance. Under the presidency of Viktor Orban, Fidesz became a centre-right party by adopting a mixed ideology that contained contradictory elements. The reason for Fidesz's electoral success in 1998 was that it responded to the social need for order and democratic consolidation after the turbulent years of political and economic transformation. However, the years when Fidesz governed Hungary (1998-2002) could be characterized by both conservative consolidation and populist mass mobilization. Voters could not fully understand why the rhetoric of 'second revolution' would lead to the consolidation of democracy. This sort of contradictory agenda-setting from above alienated the majority of voters in the 2002 elections so Fidesz was replaced by the returning MSZP-SZDSZ left-liberal coalition government. Despite two electoral losses (2002 and 2006), Fidesz created a second political culture, an alternative polity that established itself as the Hungarian version of the New Right, a mixture of populism, conservatism, and plebeian, redistributionist, economic nationalism. The emergence of the Hungarian New Right reinterpreted social conflicts, and sharpened political division in the society. Adapted from the source document.

Democratization in Central Europe

Democratization in Central Europe is a success story in historical perspective. Twenty years after the spectacular collapse of communism, most countries, which had belonged to the “buffer zone” between West Germany and the Soviet Union, now belong to the European Union. The transition was relatively short and was characterized by negotiations, self-limiting behavior, and nonviolence of the participants (with the exception of the Romanian revolution). The ideas of 1989 included negative freedom, free market liberalism, consensual democracy, civil society, and the wish to return to Europe, determined by the social, political, and economic legacies of communism. The short transition was followed by a longer and more difficult consolidation, which was parallel with economic restructuring, privatization, and deregulation. The pain of economic transformation was socially accepted as an “inevitable” part of the process. Social peace could therefore be based on the patience of these societies as well as on the hope to enter NATO and the European Union. In a way, it was an externally driven consolidation. In 2004, most of the Central European countries joined the European Union, which caused a landslide political change in their internal politics. While countries of Central Europe are now inside the EU, which caused some parallel changes in the leadership, the end of post-communism did not seem to bring fundamentally more innovative political elites into the leadership of these societies.

Consolidation or Second Revolution? The Emergence of the New Right in Hungary

The political turn of 1998 in post-transition Hungary marked the beginning of a new era: the rise of the New Right. Fidesz, which used to be a liberal party during the regime change of 1989, later changed its political stance. Under the presidency of Viktor Orba´n, Fidesz became a centre-right party by adopting a mixed ideology that contained contradictory elements. The reason for Fidesz’s electoral success in 1998 was that it responded to the social need for order and democratic consolidation after the turbulent years of political and economic transformation. However, the years when Fidesz governed Hungary (1998–2002) could be characterized by both conservative consolidation and populist mass mobilization. Voters could not fully understand why the rhetoric of ‘second revolution’ would lead to the consolidation of democracy. This sort of contradictory agenda-setting from above alienated the majority of voters in the 2002 elections so Fidesz was replaced by the returning MSZP–SZDSZ left-liberal coalition government. Despite two electoral losses (2002 and 2006), Fidesz created a second political culture, an alternative polity that established itself as the Hungarian version of the New Right, a mixture of populism, conservatism, and plebeian, redistributionist, economic nationalism. The emergence of the Hungarian New Right reinterpreted social conflicts, and sharpened political division in the society.

Anarcho-demokraták : az anarchizmus elmélete és magyarországi története

Anarcho-democrats: the theory of anarchism and its history in Hungary

Bozóki A. Háború és béke. In: Gábor G, editor. A párizsi toronyőr : Kende Péter 80. születésnapjára. Budapest: Pallas; 2007. p. 113-25.

Háború és béke

War and Peace

Bozóki A. Die Politik der Opposition im Ungarn der 1980er Jahre. In: Buzogány Á, Frankenberger R, editors. Osteuropa : Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Vol 2. Baden-Baden: Nomos; 2007. p. 261-75. (Weltregionen im Wandel; vol 2).

Hogyan reformáljunk? : Tipikus politikai dilemmák

How to Reform? : Typical Political Dilemmas 2000, March 2007. 3-12.

Bozóki A, Simon E. Formal Institutions and Informal Practices in Hungary. In: Meyer G, editor. Formal Institutions and Informal Politics in Central and Eastern Europe : Hungary, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. Opladen: Barbara Budrich Publishers; 2006. p. 145-94.

A szabadság kultúrája : Magyar Kulturális Stratégia 2006-2020

The Culture of Freedom – Cultural Strategy for Hungary, 2006-2020

Bozóki A. The Image of Europe : The European Integration and the New Central Europe. In: Ortino S, Mastny M, Zagar M, editors. Changing Faces of Federalism : Political Reconfiguration of Europe from East to West. Manchester: Manchester University Press; 2005. p. 85-106. (Europe in change).

Erotikus? Katolikus? Politikus?

Viszonválasz György Péternek (Szex hadiállapot idején – 2005. november)

Bozóki A. The end of post-communism. Central European Political Science Review. 2005;6(21-22):34-6.

Consolidation or Second Revolution? : The Politics of the New Right in Hungary

In his paper, the author intends to explore the problems arising from this consolidation of democracy, with special attention to the New Right that ruled Hungary between 1998 and 2002. The New Right coalition government attempted to consolidate by means of a “second revolution”, which, however, led to its election defeat. According to the author, one of the lessons to be learned from the 1998-2002 electoral period is that in democracy, political and cultural communities are two different things. The New Right government, however, wanted to restructure the cultural community according to a right-wing cultural value-system, and by doing so it suggested that whoever failed to agree with that could not be a member of the political community

Bozóki A. Az Európai Unió és Magyarország : a passzívan támogatott csatlakozás. In: Bayer J, editor. Az uniós csatlakozás küszöbén : a Magyar politikatudományi társaság 2003. május 30-ai vándorgyűlésének előadásai. Budapest: Magyar Politikatudományi Társaság; 2004. p. 9-21.

Az Európai Unió és Magyarország : a passzívan támogatott csatlakozás

The European Union and Hungary: Accession Passively Approved in Bayer József: At the Accession to the European Union

Bozóki A. Két pályaív. In: Merényi M, editor. Gyurcsány a magyar sajtó tükrében. Budapest: Ringier; 2004. p. 206-14.

Két pályaív

Two Career Paths

Bozóki A, Karácsony G. Hongrie, Étre dans l’Europe sans en etre. In: Rupnik J, editor. Les Européens face à l'élargissement : perceptions, acteurs, enjeux. Paris: Presses de Sciences; 2004. p. 199-223. (Collection académique).

Az alkotmányos forradalom éve : 1989

The Year of Constitutional Revolution

Bozóki A. Politikai polgárosodás és elitváltó redikalizmus : a Fidesz-MPP vezette kormány. In: Pesti S, Szabó M, editors. "Jöjj el szabadság!" : Bihari Mihály egyetemi tanár 60. születésnapjára készült ünneplő kötet. Vol 14. Budapest: Rejtjel; 2003. p. 345-79. (Rejtjel politológia könyvek; vol 14).
Bozóki A. 1989 : az alkotmányos forradalom éve. In: Varga T, editor. A rendszerváltozás dokumentumfilmjei. Budapest: Magyar Dokumentumfilmrendezők Egyesülete; 2003. p. 7-33.
Bozóki A. Theoretical Interpretations of Elite Change in East Central Europe. In: Dogan M, editor. Elite Configurations at the Apex of Power. Vol 85. Leiden: Brill; 2003. p. 215-48. (International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology; vol 85).
Bozóki A. Az elitváltás elméleti értelmezései : kelet-közép-európai megközelítések. In: Bárdi N, Fedinec C, editors. Etnopolitika : A közösségi, magán- és nemzetközi érdekek viszonyrendszere Közép-Európában. 4th ed. Budapest: Teleki László Alapítvány; 2003. p. 9-42.
Bozóki A. Politikai ideológiák. In: Gallai S, Török G, editors. Politika és politikatudomány. Budapest: Aula Kiadó; 2003. p. 97-145.

Politikai ideológiák

Political Ideologies

Theoretical Interpretations of Elite Change in East Central Europe

Elite theory enjoyed a remarkable revival in Central & Eastern Europe, & also in international social science research, during the 1990s. Many researchers coming from different schools of thought turned to the analysis of rapid political & social changes & ended up doing centered research. Since democratic transition & elite transformation seemed to be parallel processes, it was understandable that sociologists & political scientists of the region started to use elite theory. The idea of "third wave" of democratization advanced a reduced, more synthetic, "exportable" understanding of democracy in the political science literature. The main focus of social sciences shifted from structures to actors, from path dependency to institutional choices. Transitions, roundtable negotiations, institution-building, constitution-making, compromise-seeking, pact-making, pact-breaking, strategic choices -- all of these underlined the importance of elites & research on them. Elite settlements were seen as alternatives of social revolution. According to a widely shared view, democratic institutions came into existence through negotiations & compromises among political elites calculating their own interests & desires. The elite settlement approach was then followed by some important contributions in transitology which described the process of regime change largely as "elite games." By offering a systematic overview of the theoretical interpretations of elite change from New Class theory to recent theorizing of elite change (conversion of capital, reproduction, circulation, political capitalism, technocratic continuity, three elites & the like), the paper also gives an account of the state of the arts in elite studies in different new democracies of Central & Eastern Europe. 4 Tables, 2 Figures, 188 References. Adapted from the source document.

Az MSZP második visszatérése és a rendszerváltás értelmezései

The second return of the MSZP and the interpretations of regime change

A rendszerváltás tartalma és a demokrácia feladatai

The Content of Regime Change and the Tasks of Democracy

Party-System and Public Discourse: The Hungarian Semi-Loyal Parties

The article provides an analysis of semi-loyal par ties based on the discussion of Hungarian politics. The following issue is being addressed: What is the situation with those semi-loyal parties that appear to be fully participating in democracy? It is argued, that despite being marginalized politically, semiloyal parties might exercise a significant influence over public discourse.

Az elitváltás elméleti értelmezései : kelet-közép-európai megközelítések

Elite theory enjoyed a remarkable revival in East Central Europe. Many researchers coming from different schools of thought – Marxist class analysis,Weberian sociology, functionalist social stratification research, New Class theory, and the like – turned to the analysis of rapid political and social changes and ended up doing elite centered research. One of the most important characteristics of contemporary elite research is the focus on elite transformation because nowadays elite research is primarily about change. The study investigates some major paradigms in elite theory (Daniel Bell, Kevin Phillips, Alvin Gouldner, Konrád and Szelényi, Irvin Kristol) and discusses contemporary general statements in detail (Burton and Higley, Iván Szelényi, Higley and Lengyel, Higley and Pakulski). Finally, it offers a wide overview on recent explanations which proved to be relevant in understanding elite change in East Central Europe. Those theories include the ideas of 1. ’Grand Coalition’ (Elemér Hankiss), 2. political capitalism (Jadwiga Staniszkis), 3. elite network state (Anton Steen), 4. technocratic continuity (Erzsébet Szalai), 5. institution-building elites (Kaminski and Kurczewska), and finally 6.the proposition of ’three elites’ (Jacek Wasilewski). It predicts that, as reflection to the caracteristics of the period of democratic consolidation, comprehensive elite research will combine formal, positional analysis and informal, elite network approach as well.

Success Stories : Lessons of Democratization in Central Europe

The article analyzes the meaning and modes of these revolutionary changes of 1989 by focusing on the nature of the roundtable talks and their impact on the subsequent democratic regime.The fact that countries of Central Europe became new democracies is not attributable to a single factor only. There are numerous internal and external causes that brought about the collapse of the old regime in this particular way, in this particular time. As far as the internal causes are concerned, one must stress 1. the impact of previous revolutions and reform attempts, 2. the diminishing performance of the economy, 3. the exhaustion of the social reserves of the regime, 4. the disintegration of the ideology, and 5. the willingness to compromise on the part of the new and the old elite. Among the most important external factors, one must number 1. the defeat in the Cold War, 2. the crippling consequences of the arms race, 3. the social and ethnic conflicts that made the Eastern Bloc bursting at the seams, 4. the coordinated, evolutionist strategies of the democratic opposition in a number of these countries, 5. the corresponding, human rights-based foreign policies of the Western countries initiated buys President Carter in the 1970s, and finally, 6. the rise to the top of the Soviet party hierarchy of First Secretary Gorbachev who introduced a style of politics open to compromise.

Book review : Central European Ways to Democracy : Studies in Public Policy

Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia are by most international standards liberal democracies. But these democracies still are relatively poor compared to West European countries. By examining the success of democratization in unfavourable economic conditions the legacy of the transition process as well as the legacies of pre-communist and communist regimes are shown. The Central European pattern of transition can be summarized by two ideas: non-violence and negotiation. The transition socialized political and social actors to value peace and self-limited political behavior: both experiences proved useful in later stages of democratization too. Among pre-communist legacies institution-building has been emphasized in the revolutionary tradition. People learned that breaking with the past through rebellion was not enough; short term victories can easily be turned to defeats. Only building a new institutional order can guarantee the longer term success of revolutionary change. Among many negative ones, the few positive legacies of communism -- social mobilization, industrialization, high literacy rate, urbanization, and a curious form of female emancipation -- created some favorable social requisites for democratic political change.

Bozóki A. Central European ways to democracy. Glasgow: Centre for the Study of Public Policy (University of Strathclyde); 2003.

Book review : Vitatkozó diktatúra

This article reviews the book of Ervin Csizmadia: Diskurzus és diktatúra.

Bozóki A. The Hungarian Socialists : Technocratic Modernizationism or New Social Democracy? In: Bozóki A, Ishiyama JT, editors. Communist Successor Parties of Central and Eastern Europe. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe; 2002. p. 89-115.
Bozóki A. Modernisation and Nationalism : Pathways to Power for ex-Communists in Europe, and the Hungarian Case. In: Sörensen LB, Eliason LC, editors. Fascism, Liberalism, and Social Democracy in Central Europe : Past and Present. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press; 2002. p. 200-47.
Bozóki A. Politikai közösség vagy kulturális közösség? : az Orbán-kormány demokrácia-felfogása. In: Sükösd M, Vásárhelyi M, editors. Hol a határ? : kampánystratégiák és kampányetika, 2002. Budapest: Élet és Irodalom; 2002. p. 161-85.

Politikai közösség vagy kulturális közösség? : az Orbán-kormány demokrácia-felfogása

Political or Cultural Community? The Orbán Cabinet’s Understanding of Democracy